GDScript: An introduction to dynamic languages

Über

This tutorial aims to be a quick reference for how to use GDScript more efficiently. It focuses on common cases specific to the language, but also covers a lot of information on dynamically typed languages.

It’s meant to be especially useful for programmers with little or no previous experience with dynamically typed languages.

Dynamic nature

Vor- und Nachteile von dynamischer Typisierung

GDScript is a Dynamically Typed language. As such, its main advantages are that:

  • The language is simple and easy to learn.
  • Most code can be written and changed quickly and without hassle.
  • Less code written means less errors & mistakes to fix.
  • Easier to read the code (less clutter).
  • No compilation is required to test.
  • Laufzeit ist gering.
  • Duck-typing and polymorphism by nature.

While the main disadvantages are:

  • Less performance than statically typed languages.
  • More difficult to refactor (symbols can’t be traced)
  • Some errors that would typically be detected at compile time in statically typed languages only appear while running the code (because expression parsing is more strict).
  • Less flexibility for code-completion (some variable types are only known at run-time).

This, translated to reality, means that Godot+GDScript are a combination designed to create games quickly and efficiently. For games that are very computationally intensive and can’t benefit from the engine built-in tools (such as the Vector types, Physics Engine, Math library, etc), the possibility of using C++ is present too. This allows you to still create most of the game in GDScript and add small bits of C++ in the areas that need a performance boost.

Variables & assignment

All variables in a dynamically typed language are „variant“-like. This means that their type is not fixed, and is only modified through assignment. Example:

Statisch:

int a; // Value uninitialized
a = 5; // This is valid
a = "Hi!"; // This is invalid

Dynamisch:

var a # null by default
a = 5 # Valid, 'a' becomes an integer
a = "Hi!" # Valid, 'a' changed to a string

Als Funktions Argumente:

Funktionen sind ebenfalls von dynamisch, dass bedeutet sie können mit unterschiedlichen Argumenten aufgerufen werden, zum Beispiel:

Statisch:

void print_value(int value) {

    printf("value is %i\n", value);
}

[..]

print_value(55); // Valid
print_value("Hello"); // Invalid

Dynamisch:

func print_value(value):
    print(value)

[..]

print_value(55) # Valid
print_value("Hello") # Valid

Pointers & referencing:

In static languages, such as C or C++ (and to some extent Java and C#), there is a distinction between a variable and a pointer/reference to a variable. The latter allows the object to be modified by other functions by passing a reference to the original one.

In C# or Java, everything not a built-in type (int, float, sometimes String) is always a pointer or a reference. References are also garbage-collected automatically, which means they are erased when no longer used. Dynamically typed languages tend to use this memory model, too. Some Examples:

  • C++:
void use_class(SomeClass *instance) {

    instance->use();
}

void do_something() {

    SomeClass *instance = new SomeClass; // Created as pointer
    use_class(instance); // Passed as pointer
    delete instance; // Otherwise it will leak memory
}
  • Java:
@Override
public final void use_class(SomeClass instance) {

    instance.use();
}

public final void do_something() {

    SomeClass instance = new SomeClass(); // Created as reference
    use_class(instance); // Passed as reference
    // Garbage collector will get rid of it when not in
    // use and freeze your game randomly for a second
}
  • GDScript:
func use_class(instance); # Does not care about class type
    instance.use() # Will work with any class that has a ".use()" method.

func do_something():
    var instance = SomeClass.new() # Created as reference
    use_class(instance) # Passed as reference
    # Will be unreferenced and deleted

In GDScript, only base types (int, float, string and the vector types) are passed by value to functions (value is copied). Everything else (instances, arrays, dictionaries, etc) is passed as reference. Classes that inherit class_Reference (the default if nothing is specified) will be freed when not used, but manual memory management is allowed too if inheriting manually from class_Object.

Arrays

Arrays in dynamically typed languages can contain many different mixed datatypes inside and are always dynamic (can be resized at any time). Compare for example arrays in statically typed languages:

int *array = new int[4]; // Create array
array[0] = 10; // Initialize manually
array[1] = 20; // Can't mix types
array[2] = 40;
array[3] = 60;
// Can't resize
use_array(array); // Passed as pointer
delete[] array; // Must be freed

// or

std::vector<int> array;
array.resize(4);
array[0] = 10; // Initialize manually
array[1] = 20; // Can't mix types
array[2] = 40;
array[3] = 60;
array.resize(3); // Can be resized
use_array(array); // Passed reference or value
// Freed when stack ends

Und in GDScript:

var array = [10, "hello", 40, 60] # Simple, and can mix types
array.resize(3) # Can be resized
use_array(array) # Passed as reference
# Freed when no longer in use

In dynamically typed languages, arrays can also double as other datatypes, such as lists:

var array = []
array.append(4)
array.append(5)
array.pop_front()

Or unordered sets:

var a = 20
if a in [10, 20, 30]:
    print("We have a winner!")

Dictionaries

Dictionaries are a powerful tool in dynamically typed languages. Most programmers that come from statically typed languages (such as C++ or C#) ignore their existence and make their life unnecessarily more difficult. This datatype is generally not present in such languages (or only in limited form).

Dictionaries can map any value to any other value with complete disregard for the datatype used as either key or value. Contrary to popular belief, they are efficient because they can be implemented with hash tables. They are, in fact, so efficient that some languages will go as far as implementing arrays as dictionaries.

Example of Dictionary:

var d = {"name": "John", "age": 22} # Simple syntax
print("Name: ", d["name"], " Age: ", d["age"])

Dictionaries are also dynamic, keys can be added or removed at any point at little cost:

d["mother"] = "Rebecca" # Addition
d["age"] = 11 # Modification
d.erase("name") # Removal

In most cases, two-dimensional arrays can often be implemented more easily with dictionaries. Here’s a simple battleship game example:

# Battleship game

const SHIP = 0
const SHIP_HIT = 1
const WATER_HIT = 2

var board = {}

func initialize():
    board[Vector2(1, 1)] = SHIP
    board[Vector2(1, 2)] = SHIP
    board[Vector2(1, 3)] = SHIP

func missile(pos):
    if pos in board: # Something at that pos
        if board[pos] == SHIP: # There was a ship! hit it
            board[pos] = SHIP_HIT
        else:
            print("Already hit here!") # Hey dude you already hit here
    else: # Nothing, mark as water
        board[pos] = WATER_HIT

func game():
    initialize()
    missile(Vector2(1, 1))
    missile(Vector2(5, 8))
    missile(Vector2(2, 3))

Dictionaries can also be used as data markup or quick structures. While GDScript’s dictionaries resemble python dictionaries, it also supports Lua style syntax and indexing, which makes it useful for writing initial states and quick structs:

# Same example, lua-style support.
# This syntax is a lot more readable and usable
# Like any GDScript identifier, keys written in this form cannot start with a digit.

var d = {
    name = "John",
    age = 22
}

print("Name: ", d.name, " Age: ", d.age) # Used "." based indexing

# Indexing

d["mother"] = "Rebecca"
d.mother = "Caroline" # This would work too to create a new key

For & while

Iterating in some statically typed languages can be quite complex:

const char* strings = new const char*[50];

[..]

for (int i = 0; i < 50; i++)
{

    printf("Value: %s\n", i, strings[i]);
}

// Even in STL:

for (std::list<std::string>::const_iterator it = strings.begin(); it != strings.end(); it++) {

    std::cout << *it << std::endl;
}

This is usually greatly simplified in dynamically typed languages:

for s in strings:
    print(s)

Container datatypes (arrays and dictionaries) are iterable. Dictionaries allow iterating the keys:

for key in dict:
    print(key, " -> ", dict[key])

Iterating with indices is also possible:

for i in range(strings.size()):
    print(strings[i])

Die range() Funktion nimmt bis zu 3 Argumente an:

range(n) # Will go from 0 to n-1
range(b, n) # Will go from b to n-1
range(b, n, s) # Will go from b to n-1, in steps of s

Some statically typed programming language examples:

for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {}

for (int i = 5; i < 10; i++) {}

for (int i = 5; i < 10; i += 2) {}

Sind gleichbedeutend mit:

for i in range(10):
    pass

for i in range(5, 10):
    pass

for i in range(5, 10, 2):
    pass

Rückwärts durch die Schleife iterieren kann man mit einem negativen Zähler:

for (int i = 10; i > 0; i--) {}

Wird zu:

for i in range(10, 0, -1):
    pass

While

while() Schleifen sind überall gleich:

var i = 0

while i < strings.size():
    print(strings[i])
    i += 1

Benutzerdefinierte Iteratoren

Du kannst benutzerdefinierte Iteratoren generieren, wenn die vorgegebenen nicht ganz deinen Anforderungen entsprechen, indem du die _iter_init, _iter_next, und _iter_get Funktionen der <<Variant class?>> überschreibst. Es folgt eine Implementierung für einen Vorwärts-Iterator:

class ForwardIterator:
    var start
    var current
    var end
    var increment

    func _init(start, stop, increment):
        self.start = start
        self.current = start
        self.end = stop
        self.increment = increment

    func should_continue():
        return (current < end)

    func _iter_init(arg):
        current = start
        return should_continue()

    func _iter_next(arg):
        current += increment
        return should_continue()

    func _iter_get(arg):
        return current

Und er kann wie jeder andere Iterator verwendet werden:

var itr = ForwardIterator.new(0, 6, 2)
for i in itr:
    print(i) # Will print 0, 2, and 4

Stelle sicher, dass der Status des Iterators in _iter_init zurückgesetzt wird, sonst kann es passieren, dass sich verschachtelte for-loops nicht wie gewünscht verhalten.

Duck typing

Eines der am schwersten zu erfassenden Konzepte, wenn man von einer statisch typisierten zu einer dynamisch typisierten Sprache wechselt, ist duck typing. Duck typing macht allgemeines Code-Design viel leichter und unkomplizierter zu schreiben, aber es ist vielleicht nicht gleich ersichtlich, wie es funktioniert.

As an example, imagine a situation where a big rock is falling down a tunnel, smashing everything on its way. The code for the rock, in a statically typed language would be something like:

void BigRollingRock::on_object_hit(Smashable *entity) {

    entity->smash();
}

This way, everything that can be smashed by a rock would have to inherit Smashable. If a character, enemy, piece of furniture, small rock were all smashable, they would need to inherit from the class Smashable, possibly requiring multiple inheritance. If multiple inheritance was undesired, then they would have to inherit a common class like Entity. Yet, it would not be very elegant to add a virtual method smash() to Entity only if a few of them can be smashed.

With dynamically typed languages, this is not a problem. Duck typing makes sure you only have to define a smash() function where required and that’s it. No need to consider inheritance, base classes, etc.

func _on_object_hit(object):
    object.smash()

And that’s it. If the object that hit the big rock has a smash() method, it will be called. No need for inheritance or polymorphism. Dynamically typed languages only care about the instance having the desired method or member, not what it inherits or the class type. The definition of Duck Typing should make this clearer:

„When I see a bird that walks like a duck and swims like a duck and quacks like a duck, I call that bird a duck“

In this case, it translates to:

„If the object can be smashed, don’t care what it is, just smash it.“

Yes, we should call it Hulk typing instead.

It’s possible that the object being hit doesn’t have a smash() function. Some dynamically typed languages simply ignore a method call when it doesn’t exist (like Objective C), but GDScript is stricter, so checking if the function exists is desirable:

func _on_object_hit(object):
    if object.has_method("smash"):
        object.smash()

Then, simply define that method and anything the rock touches can be smashed.