.. _doc_first_3d_game_player_movement: Moving the player with code =========================== It's time to code! We're going to use the input actions we created in the last part to move the character. Right-click the *Player* node and select *Attach Script* to add a new script to it. In the popup, set the *Template* to *Empty* before pressing the *Create* button. |image0| Let's start with the class's properties. We're going to define a movement speed, a fall acceleration representing gravity, and a velocity we'll use to move the character. .. tabs:: .. code-tab:: gdscript GDScript extends KinematicBody # How fast the player moves in meters per second. export var speed = 14 # The downward acceleration when in the air, in meters per second squared. export var fall_acceleration = 75 var velocity = Vector3.ZERO .. code-tab:: csharp public class Player : KinematicBody { // Don't forget to rebuild the project so the editor knows about the new export variable. // How fast the player moves in meters per second. [Export] public int Speed = 14; // The downward acceleration when in the air, in meters per second squared. [Export] public int FallAcceleration = 75; private Vector3 _velocity = Vector3.Zero; } These are common properties for a moving body. The ``velocity`` is a 3D vector combining a speed with a direction. Here, we define it as a property because we want to update and reuse its value across frames. .. note:: The values are quite different from 2D code because distances are in meters. While in 2D, a thousand units (pixels) may only correspond to half of your screen's width, in 3D, it's a kilometer. Let's code the movement now. We start by calculating the input direction vector using the global ``Input`` object, in ``_physics_process()``. .. tabs:: .. code-tab:: gdscript GDScript func _physics_process(delta): # We create a local variable to store the input direction. var direction = Vector3.ZERO # We check for each move input and update the direction accordingly. if Input.is_action_pressed("move_right"): direction.x += 1 if Input.is_action_pressed("move_left"): direction.x -= 1 if Input.is_action_pressed("move_back"): # Notice how we are working with the vector's x and z axes. # In 3D, the XZ plane is the ground plane. direction.z += 1 if Input.is_action_pressed("move_forward"): direction.z -= 1 .. code-tab:: csharp public override void _PhysicsProcess(float delta) { // We create a local variable to store the input direction. var direction = Vector3.Zero; // We check for each move input and update the direction accordingly if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_right")) { direction.x += 1f; } if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_left")) { direction.x -= 1f; } if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_back")) { // Notice how we are working with the vector's x and z axes. // In 3D, the XZ plane is the ground plane. direction.z += 1f; } if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_forward")) { direction.z -= 1f; } } Here, we're going to make all calculations using the ``_physics_process()`` virtual function. Like ``_process()``, it allows you to update the node every frame, but it's designed specifically for physics-related code like moving a kinematic or rigid body. .. seealso:: To learn more about the difference between ``_process()`` and ``_physics_process()``, see :ref:`doc_idle_and_physics_processing`. We start by initializing a ``direction`` variable to ``Vector3.ZERO``. Then, we check if the player is pressing one or more of the ``move_*`` inputs and update the vector's ``x`` and ``z`` components accordingly. These correspond to the ground plane's axes. These four conditions give us eight possibilities and eight possible directions. In case the player presses, say, both W and D simultaneously, the vector will have a length of about ``1.4``. But if they press a single key, it will have a length of ``1``. We want the vector's length to be consistent. To do so, we can call its ``normalize()`` method. .. tabs:: .. code-tab:: gdscript GDScript #func _physics_process(delta): #... if direction != Vector3.ZERO: direction = direction.normalized() \$Pivot.look_at(translation + direction, Vector3.UP) .. code-tab:: csharp public override void _PhysicsProcess(float delta) { // ... if (direction != Vector3.Zero) { direction = direction.Normalized(); GetNode("Pivot").LookAt(Translation + direction, Vector3.Up); } } Here, we only normalize the vector if the direction has a length greater than zero, which means the player is pressing a direction key. In this case, we also get the *Pivot* node and call its ``look_at()`` method. This method takes a position in space to look at in global coordinates and the up direction. In this case, we can use the ``Vector3.UP`` constant. .. note:: A node's local coordinates, like ``translation``, are relative to their parent. Global coordinates are relative to the world's main axes you can see in the viewport instead. In 3D, the property that contains a node's position is ``translation``. By adding the ``direction`` to it, we get a position to look at that's one meter away from the *Player*. Then, we update the velocity. We have to calculate the ground velocity and the fall speed separately. Be sure to go back one tab so the lines are inside the ``_physics_process()`` function but outside the condition we just wrote. .. tabs:: .. code-tab:: gdscript GDScript func _physics_process(delta): #... if direction != Vector3.ZERO: #... # Ground velocity velocity.x = direction.x * speed velocity.z = direction.z * speed # Vertical velocity velocity.y -= fall_acceleration * delta # Moving the character velocity = move_and_slide(velocity, Vector3.UP) .. code-tab:: csharp public override void _PhysicsProcess(float delta) { // ... // Ground velocity _velocity.x = direction.x * Speed; _velocity.z = direction.z * Speed; // Vertical velocity _velocity.y -= FallAcceleration * delta; // Moving the character _velocity = MoveAndSlide(_velocity, Vector3.Up); } For the vertical velocity, we subtract the fall acceleration multiplied by the delta time every frame. Notice the use of the ``-=`` operator, which is a shorthand for ``variable = variable - ...``. This line of code will cause our character to fall in every frame. This may seem strange if it's already on the floor. But we have to do this for the character to collide with the ground every frame. The physics engine can only detect interactions with walls, the floor, or other bodies during a given frame if movement and collisions happen. We will use this property later to code the jump. On the last line, we call ``KinematicBody.move_and_slide()``. It's a powerful method of the ``KinematicBody`` class that allows you to move a character smoothly. If it hits a wall midway through a motion, the engine will try to smooth it out for you. The function takes two parameters: our velocity and the up direction. It moves the character and returns a leftover velocity after applying collisions. When hitting the floor or a wall, the function will reduce or reset the speed in that direction from you. In our case, storing the function's returned value prevents the character from accumulating vertical momentum, which could otherwise get so big the character would move through the ground slab after a while. And that's all the code you need to move the character on the floor. Here is the complete ``Player.gd`` code for reference. .. tabs:: .. code-tab:: gdscript GDScript extends KinematicBody # How fast the player moves in meters per second. export var speed = 14 # The downward acceleration when in the air, in meters per second squared. export var fall_acceleration = 75 var velocity = Vector3.ZERO func _physics_process(delta): var direction = Vector3.ZERO if Input.is_action_pressed("move_right"): direction.x += 1 if Input.is_action_pressed("move_left"): direction.x -= 1 if Input.is_action_pressed("move_back"): direction.z += 1 if Input.is_action_pressed("move_forward"): direction.z -= 1 if direction != Vector3.ZERO: direction = direction.normalized() \$Pivot.look_at(translation + direction, Vector3.UP) velocity.x = direction.x * speed velocity.z = direction.z * speed velocity.y -= fall_acceleration * delta velocity = move_and_slide(velocity, Vector3.UP) .. code-tab:: csharp public class Player : KinematicBody { // How fast the player moves in meters per second. [Export] public int Speed = 14; // The downward acceleration when in the air, in meters per second squared. [Export] public int FallAcceleration = 75; private Vector3 _velocity = Vector3.Zero; public override void _PhysicsProcess(float delta) { // We create a local variable to store the input direction. var direction = Vector3.Zero; // We check for each move input and update the direction accordingly if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_right")) { direction.x += 1f; } if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_left")) { direction.x -= 1f; } if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_back")) { // Notice how we are working with the vector's x and z axes. // In 3D, the XZ plane is the ground plane. direction.z += 1f; } if (Input.IsActionPressed("move_forward")) { direction.z -= 1f; } if (direction != Vector3.Zero) { direction = direction.Normalized(); GetNode("Pivot").LookAt(Translation + direction, Vector3.Up); } // Ground velocity _velocity.x = direction.x * Speed; _velocity.z = direction.z * Speed; // Vertical velocity _velocity.y -= FallAcceleration * delta; // Moving the character _velocity = MoveAndSlide(_velocity, Vector3.Up); } } Testing our player's movement ----------------------------- We're going to put our player in the *Main* scene to test it. To do so, we need to instantiate the player and then add a camera. Unlike in 2D, in 3D, you won't see anything if your viewport doesn't have a camera pointing at something. Save your *Player* scene and open the *Main* scene. You can click on the *Main* tab at the top of the editor to do so. |image1| If you closed the scene before, head to the *FileSystem* dock and double-click ``Main.tscn`` to re-open it. To instantiate the *Player*, right-click on the *Main* node and select *Instance Child Scene*. |image2| In the popup, double-click *Player.tscn*. The character should appear in the center of the viewport. Adding a camera ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Let's add the camera next. Like we did with our *Player*\ 's *Pivot*, we're going to create a basic rig. Right-click on the *Main* node again and select *Add Child Node* this time. Create a new *Position3D*, name it *CameraPivot*, and add a *Camera* node as a child of it. Your scene tree should look like this. |image3| Notice the *Preview* checkbox that appears in the top-left when you have the *Camera* selected. You can click it to preview the in-game camera projection. |image4| We're going to use the *Pivot* to rotate the camera as if it was on a crane. Let's first split the 3D view to be able to freely navigate the scene and see what the camera sees. In the toolbar right above the viewport, click on *View*, then *2 Viewports*. You can also press :kbd:`Ctrl + 2` (:kbd:`Cmd + 2` on macOS). |image5| On the bottom view, select the *Camera* and turn on camera preview by clicking the checkbox. |image6| In the top view, move the camera about ``19`` units on the Z axis (the blue one). |image7| Here's where the magic happens. Select the *CameraPivot* and rotate it ``45`` degrees around the X axis (using the red circle). You'll see the camera move as if it was attached to a crane. |image8| You can run the scene by pressing :kbd:`F6` and press the arrow keys to move the character. |image9| We can see some empty space around the character due to the perspective projection. In this game, we're going to use an orthographic projection instead to better frame the gameplay area and make it easier for the player to read distances. Select the *Camera* again and in the *Inspector*, set the *Projection* to *Orthogonal* and the *Size* to ``19``. The character should now look flatter and the ground should fill the background. |image10| With that, we have both player movement and the view in place. Next, we will work on the monsters. .. |image0| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/01.attach_script_to_player.png .. |image1| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/02.clicking_main_tab.png .. |image2| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/03.instance_child_scene.png .. |image3| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/04.scene_tree_with_camera.png .. |image4| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/05.camera_preview_checkbox.png .. |image5| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/06.two_viewports.png .. |image6| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/07.camera_preview_checkbox.png .. |image7| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/08.camera_moved.png .. |image8| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/09.camera_rotated.png .. |image9| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/10.camera_perspective.png .. |image10| image:: img/03.player_movement_code/11.camera_orthographic.png