Godot 인터페이스

기능을 위해 다른 객체에 의존하는 스크립트가 필요한 경우가 종종 있습니다. 이 과정에는 2부분이 있습니다:

  1. 아마도 기능을 갖는 객체에 대한 참조를 얻기.
  2. 객체에서 데이터 또는 논리에 접근하기.

이 튜토리얼의 나머지 부분에서는 이 모든 작업을 하는 다양한 방법을 간략하게 설명합니다.

객체 참조 얻기

모든 :ref:`객체 <class_Object>에 있어, 객체를 참조하는 가장 기본이 되는 방식은 획득한 다른 인스턴스로부터 존재하는 객체로 참조를 가져오는 것이다.

var obj = node.object # Property access.
var obj = node.get_object() # Method access.
Object obj = node.Object; // Property access.
Object obj = node.GetObject(); // Method access.

참조 객체에게도 같은 원리가 적용됩니다. 사용자들은 종종 노드리소스를 이런 방식으로 연결하지만, 대체 조치가 가능합니다.

Instead of property or method access, one can get Resources by load access.

var preres = preload(path) # Load resource during scene load
var res = load(path) # Load resource when program reaches statement

# Note that users load scenes and scripts, by convention, with PascalCase
# names (like typenames), often into constants.
const MyScene : = preload("my_scene.tscn") as PackedScene # Static load
const MyScript : = preload("my_script.gd") as Script

# This type's value varies, i.e. it is a variable, so it uses snake_case.
export(Script) var script_type: Script

# If need an "export const var" (which doesn't exist), use a conditional
# setter for a tool script that checks if it's executing in the editor.
tool # Must place at top of file.

# Must configure from the editor, defaults to null.
export(Script) var const_script setget set_const_script
func set_const_script(value):
    if Engine.is_editor_hint():
        const_script = value

# Warn users if the value hasn't been set.
func _get_configuration_warning():
    if not const_script:
        return "Must initialize property 'const_script'."
    return ""
// Tool script added for the sake of the "const [Export]" example.
[Tool]
public MyType : extends Object
{
    // Property initializations load during Script instancing, i.e. .new().
    // No "preload" loads during scene load exists in C#.

    // Initialize with a value. Editable at runtime.
    public Script MyScript = GD.Load<Script>("MyScript.cs");

    // Initialize with same value. Value cannot be changed.
    public readonly Script MyConstScript = GD.Load<Script>("MyScript.cs");

    // Like 'readonly' due to inaccessible setter.
    // But, value can be set during constructor, i.e. MyType().
    public Script Library { get; } = GD.Load<Script>("res://addons/plugin/library.gd");

    // If need a "const [Export]" (which doesn't exist), use a
    // conditional setter for a tool script that checks if it's executing
    // in the editor.
    private PackedScene _enemyScn;

    [Export]
    public PackedScene EnemyScn
    {
        get { return _enemyScn; }
        set
        {
            if (Engine.IsEditorHint())
            {
                _enemyScn = value;
            }
        }
    };

    // Warn users if the value hasn't been set.
    public String _GetConfigurationWarning()
    {
        if (EnemyScn == null)
            return "Must initialize property 'EnemyScn'.";
        return "";
    }
}

Note the following:

  1. There are many ways in which a language can load such resources.
  2. When designing how objects will access data, don't forget that one can pass resources around as references as well.
  3. Keep in mind that loading a resource fetches the cached resource instance maintained by the engine. To get a new object, one must duplicate an existing reference or instantiate one from scratch with new().

Nodes likewise have an alternative access point: the SceneTree.

extends Node

# Slow.
func dynamic_lookup_with_dynamic_nodepath():
    print(get_node("Child"))

# Faster. GDScript only.
func dynamic_lookup_with_cached_nodepath():
    print($Child)

# Fastest. Doesn't break if node moves later.
# Note that `onready` keyword is GDScript only.
# Other languages must do...
#     var child
#     func _ready():
#         child = get_node("Child")
onready var child = $Child
func lookup_and_cache_for_future_access():
    print(child)

# Delegate reference assignment to an external source
# Con: need to perform a validation check
# Pro: node makes no requirements of its external structure.
#      'prop' can come from anywhere.
var prop
func call_me_after_prop_is_initialized_by_parent():
    # Validate prop in one of three ways.

    # Fail with no notification.
    if not prop:
        return

    # Fail with an error message.
    if not prop:
        printerr("'prop' wasn't initialized")
        return

    # Fail and terminate.
    # Compiled scripts in final binary do not include assert statements
    assert prop.

# Use an autoload.
# Dangerous for typical nodes, but useful for true singleton nodes
# that manage their own data and don't interfere with other objects.
func reference_a_global_autoloaded_variable():
    print(globals)
    print(globals.prop)
    print(globals.my_getter())
public class MyNode
{
    // Slow, dynamic lookup with dynamic NodePath.
    public void Method1()
    {
        GD.Print(GetNode(NodePath("Child")));
    }

    // Fastest. Lookup node and cache for future access.
    // Doesn't break if node moves later.
    public Node Child;
    public void _Ready()
    {
        Child = GetNode(NodePath("Child"));
    }
    public void Method2()
    {
        GD.Print(Child);
    }

    // Delegate reference assignment to an external source
    // Con: need to perform a validation check
    // Pro: node makes no requirements of its external structure.
    //      'prop' can come from anywhere.
    public object Prop;
    public void CallMeAfterPropIsInitializedByParent()
    {
        // Validate prop in one of three ways.

        // Fail with no notification.
        if (prop == null)
        {
            return;
        }

        // Fail with an error message.
        if (prop == null)
        {
            GD.PrintErr("'Prop' wasn't initialized");
            return;
        }

        // Fail and terminate.
        Debug.Assert(Prop, "'Prop' wasn't initialized");
    }

    // Use an autoload.
    // Dangerous for typical nodes, but useful for true singleton nodes
    // that manage their own data and don't interfere with other objects.
    public void ReferenceAGlobalAutoloadedVariable()
    {
        Node globals = GetNode(NodePath("/root/Globals"));
        GD.Print(globals);
        GD.Print(globals.prop);
        GD.Print(globals.my_getter());
    }
};

Accessing data or logic from an object

Godot's scripting API is duck-typed. This means that if a script executes an operation, Godot doesn't validate that it supports the operation by type. It instead checks that the object implements the individual method.

For example, the CanvasItem class has a visible property. All properties exposed to the scripting API are in fact a setter and getter pair bound to a name. If one tried to access CanvasItem.visible, then Godot would do the following checks, in order:

  • If the object has a script attached, it will attempt to set the property through the script. This leaves open the opportunity for scripts to override a property defined on a base object by overriding the setter method for the property.
  • If the script does not have the property, it performs a HashMap lookup in the ClassDB for the "visible" property against the CanvasItem class and all of its inherited types. If found, it will call the bound setter or getter. For more information about HashMaps, see the data preferences docs.
  • If not found, it does an explicit check to see if the user wants to access the "script" or "meta" properties.
  • If not, it checks for a _set/_get implementation (depending on type of access) in the CanvasItem and its inherited types. These methods can execute logic that gives the impression that the Object has a property. This is also the case with the _get_property_list method.
    • Note that this happens even for non-legal symbol names such as in the case of TileSet's "1/tile_name" property. This refers to the name of the tile with ID 1, i.e. TileSet.tile_get_name(1).

As a result, this duck-typed system can locate a property either in the script, the object's class, or any class that object inherits, but only for things which extend Object.

Godot provides a variety of options for performing runtime checks on these accesses:

  • A duck-typed property access. These will property check (as described above). If the operation isn't supported by the object, execution will halt.

    # All Objects have duck-typed get, set, and call wrapper methods.
    get_parent().set("visible", false)
    
    # Using a symbol accessor, rather than a string in the method call,
    # will implicitly call the `set` method which, in turn, calls the
    # setter method bound to the property through the property lookup
    # sequence.
    get_parent().visible = false
    
    # Note that if one defines a _set and _get that describe a property's
    # existence, but the property isn't recognized in any _get_property_list
    # method, then the set() and get() methods will work, but the symbol
    # access will claim it can't find the property.
    
    // All Objects have duck-typed Get, Set, and Call wrapper methods.
    GetParent().Set("visible", false);
    
    // C# is a static language, so it has no dynamic symbol access, e.g.
    // `GetParent().Visible = false` won't work.
    
  • A method check. In the case of CanvasItem.visible, one can access the methods, set_visible and is_visible like any other method.

    var child = get_child(0)
    
    # Dynamic lookup.
    child.call("set_visible", false)
    
    # Symbol-based dynamic lookup.
    # GDScript aliases this into a 'call' method behind the scenes.
    child.set_visible(false)
    
    # Dynamic lookup, checks for method existence first.
    if child.has("set_visible"):
        child.set_visible(false)
    
    # Cast check, followed by dynamic lookup
    # Useful when you make multiple "safe" calls knowing that the class
    # implements them all. No need for repeated checks.
    # Tricky if one executes a cast check for a user-defined type as it
    # forces more dependencies.
    if child is CanvasItem:
        child.set_visible(false)
        child.show_on_top = true
    
    # If one does not wish to fail these checks without notifying users, one
    # can use an assert instead. These will trigger runtime errors
    # immediately if not true.
    assert child.has("set_visible")
    assert child.is_in_group("offer")
    assert child is CanvasItem
    
    # Can also use object labels to imply an interface, i.e. assume it implements certain methods.
    # There are two types, both of which only exist for Nodes: Names and Groups
    
    # Assuming...
    # A "Quest" object exists and 1) that it can "complete" or "fail" and
    # that it will have text available before and after each state...
    
    # 1. Use a name.
    var quest = $Quest
    print(quest.text)
    quest.complete() # or quest.fail()
    print(quest.text) # implied new text content
    
    # 2. Use a group.
    for a_child in get_children():
        if a_child.is_in_group("quest"):
            print(quest.text)
            quest.complete() # or quest.fail()
            print(quest.text) # implied new text content
    
    # Note that these interfaces are project-specific conventions the team
    # defines (which means documentation! But maybe worth it?).
    # Any script that conforms to the documented "interface" of the name/group can fill in for it.
    
    Node child = GetChild(0);
    
    // Dynamic lookup.
    child.Call("SetVisible", false);
    
    // Dynamic lookup, checks for method existence first.
    if (child.HasMethod("SetVisible"))
    {
        child.Call("SetVisible", false);
    }
    
    // Use a group as if it were an "interface", i.e. assume it implements certain methods
    // requires good documentation for the project to keep it reliable (unless you make
    // editor tools to enforce it at editor time.
    // Note, this is generally not as good as using an actual interface in C#,
    // but you can't set C# interfaces from the editor since they are
    // language-level features.
    if (child.IsInGroup("Offer"))
    {
        child.Call("Accept");
        child.Call("Reject");
    }
    
    // Cast check, followed by static lookup.
    CanvasItem ci = GetParent() as CanvasItem;
    if (ci != null)
    {
        ci.SetVisible(false);
    
        // useful when you need to make multiple safe calls to the class
        ci.ShowOnTop = true;
    }
    
    // If one does not wish to fail these checks without notifying users, one
    // can use an assert instead. These will trigger runtime errors
    // immediately if not true.
    Debug.Assert(child.HasMethod("set_visible"));
    Debug.Assert(child.IsInGroup("offer"));
    Debug.Assert(CanvasItem.InstanceHas(child));
    
    // Can also use object labels to imply an interface, i.e. assume it implements certain methods.
    // There are two types, both of which only exist for Nodes: Names and Groups
    
    // Assuming...
    // A "Quest" object exists and 1) that it can "Complete" or "Fail" and
    // that it will have Text available before and after each state...
    
    // 1. Use a name.
    Node quest = GetNode("Quest");
    GD.Print(quest.Get("Text"));
    quest.Call("Complete"); // or "Fail".
    GD.Print(quest.Get("Text")); // Implied new text content.
    
    // 2. Use a group.
    foreach (Node AChild in GetChildren())
    {
        if (AChild.IsInGroup("quest"))
        {
          GD.Print(quest.Get("Text"));
          quest.Call("Complete"); // or "Fail".
          GD.Print(quest.Get("Text")); // Implied new text content.
        }
    }
    
    // Note that these interfaces are project-specific conventions the team
    // defines (which means documentation! But maybe worth it?)..
    // Any script that conforms to the documented "interface" of the
    // name/group can fill in for it. Also note that in C#, these methods
    // will be slower than static accesses with traditional interfaces.
    
  • Outsource the access to a FuncRef. These may be useful in cases where one needs the max level of freedom from dependencies. In this case, one relies on an external context to setup the method.

# child.gd
extends Node
var fn = null

func my_method():
    if fn:
        fn.call_func()

# parent.gd
extends Node

onready var child = $Child

func _ready():
    child.fn = funcref(self, "print_me")
    child.my_method()

func print_me():
    print(name)
// Child.cs
public class Child extends Node
{
    public FuncRef FN = null;

    public void MyMethod()
    {
        Debug.Assert(FN != null);
        FN.CallFunc();
    }
}

// Parent.cs
public class Parent extends Node
{
    public Node Child;

    public void _Ready()
    {
        Child = GetNode("Child");
        Child.Set("FN", GD.FuncRef(this, "PrintMe"));
        Child.MyMethod();
    }

    public void PrintMe() {
    {
        GD.Print(GetClass());
    }
}

These strategies contribute to Godot's flexible design. Between them, users have a breadth of tools to meet their specific needs.