Introdução

Aviso

Suporte a C# é um novo recurso na Godot 3.0. Por isso, você ainda pode se deparar com alguns problemas ou encontrar lugares onde a documentação poderia ser melhorada. Por favor relate problemas com C# na Godot na página da engine no Github, e qualquer problema de documentação na página da documentação no Github.

This page provides a brief introduction to C#, both what it is and how to use it in Godot. Afterwards, you may want to look at how to use specific features, read about the differences between the C# and the GDScript API and (re)visit the Scripting section of the step-by-step tutorial.

C# is a high-level programming language developed by Microsoft. In Godot, it is implemented with the Mono 6.x .NET framework, including full support for C# 8.0. Mono is an open source implementation of Microsoft’s .NET Framework based on the ECMA standards for C# and the Common Language Runtime. A good starting point for checking its capabilities is the Compatibility page in the Mono documentation.

Nota

Esse não é um tutorial completo e abrangente sobre a linguagem C#. Se você ainda não estiver familiarizado com sua sintaxe ou recursos, consulte o guia C# da Microsoft ou procure uma introdução adequada em outro lugar.

Setting up C# for Godot

Windows (Visual Studio)

Download and install the latest version of Visual Studio (not Visual Studio Code), which contains utilities required to use C# in Godot. If you don’t plan on using the Visual Studio IDE, you can download just the Visual Studio Build Tools instead. Make sure you at least have the .NET Framework 4.5 targeting pack installed, you can get it using any of the installers mentioned above inside the “Individual components” tab.

Windows (JetBrains Rider)

JetBrains Rider comes with bundled MSBuild, so nothing extra is required. Make sure to set the following preferences:

  • In Godot:

    • Mono External Editor to JetBrains Rider
    • Mono Build Tool to JetBrains Mono.
  • In Rider:

    • Set MSBuild version to either bundled with Rider or .NET Core.
    • Install Godot support plugin.

macOS e Linux

Baixe e instale a última versão do Mono SDK.

Nota

To download Mono on macOS, use the “Stable Channel” link from the Mono Downloads Page. The Visual Studio channel is an earlier version of Mono and will not work.

Additional notes

Your Godot version must have Mono support enabled, so make sure to download the Mono version of Godot. If you are building Godot from source, make sure to follow the steps to enable Mono support in your build as outlined in the Compiling with Mono page.

In summary, you must have installed Visual Studio or Mono (depending on your operating system) and the Mono-enabled version of Godot.

Configurando um editor externo

C# support in Godot’s script editor is minimal. Consider using an external IDE or editor, such as Visual Studio Code or MonoDevelop. These provide autocompletion, debugging, and other useful features for C#. To select an external editor in Godot, click on Editor → Editor Settings and scroll down to Mono. Under Mono, click on Editor, and select your external editor of choice. Godot currently supports the following external editors:

  • Visual Studio 2019
  • Visual Studio Code
  • MonoDevelop
  • Visual Studio for Mac
  • JetBrains Rider

Nota

Se você está usando Visual Studio Code, baixe e instale a extensão de C# para permitir recursos como marcação de sintaxe e IntelliSense.

Nota

Se você estiver usando o Visual Studio 2019, você deve seguir as instruções encontradas na seção “Configurar VS2019 para Depuração” abaixo.

Criando um script C#

After you successfully set up C# for Godot, you should see the following option when selecting Attach script in the context menu of a node in your scene:

../../../_images/attachcsharpscript.png

Note that while some specifics change, most concepts work the same when using C# for scripting. If you’re new to Godot, you may want to follow the tutorials on Scripting at this point. While some places in the documentation still lack C# examples, most concepts can be transferred easily from GDScript.

Configuração de projeto e fluxo de trabalho

When you create the first C# script, Godot initializes the C# project files for your Godot project. This includes generating a C# solution (.sln) and a project file (.csproj), as well as some utility files and folders (.mono and Properties/AssemblyInfo.cs). All of these but .mono are important and should be committed to your version control system. .mono can be safely added to the ignore list of your VCS. When troubleshooting, it can sometimes help to delete the .mono folder and let it regenerate.

Note that currently, there are some issues where Godot and the C# project don’t stay in sync; if you delete, rename or move a C# script, the change may not be reflected in the C# project file. In cases like this, you will have to edit the C# project file manually.

For example, if you created a script (e.g. Test.cs) and delete it in Godot, compilation will fail because the missing file is still expected to be there by the C# project file. For now, you can simply open up the .csproj file and look for the ItemGroup, there should be a line included like the following:

<ItemGroup>
    <Compile Include="Test.cs" />
    <Compile Include="AnotherTest.cs" />
</ItemGroup>

Simply remove that line and your project should build correctly again. Same for renaming and moving things, simply rename and move them in the project file if needed.

Exemplo

Aqui está um script C# em branco com alguns comentários para demonstrar como funciona.

using Godot;
using System;

public class YourCustomClass : Node
{
    // Member variables here, example:
    private int a = 2;
    private string b = "textvar";

    public override void _Ready()
    {
        // Called every time the node is added to the scene.
        // Initialization here.
        GD.Print("Hello from C# to Godot :)");
    }

    public override void _Process(float delta)
    {
        // Called every frame. Delta is time since the last frame.
        // Update game logic here.
    }
}

As you can see, functions normally in global scope in GDScript like Godot’s print function are available in the GD class which is part of the Godot namespace. For a list of methods in the GD class, see the class reference pages for @GDScript and @GlobalScope.

Nota

Keep in mind that the class you wish to attach to your node should have the same name as the .cs file. Otherwise, you will get the following error and won’t be able to run the scene: “Cannot find class XXX for script res://XXX.cs”

Diferenças gerais entre o C# e o GDScript

A API do C# usa o PascalCase em vez do snake_case no GDScript/C++. Sempre que possível, fields e getters/setters foram convertidos em propriedades. Em geral, a API C# Godot se esforça para ser tão idiomática quanto for razoavelmente possível.

For more information, see the Diferenças da API para o GDScript page.

Pegadinhas gerais e problemas conhecidos

As C# support is quite new in Godot, there are some growing pains and things that need to be ironed out. Below is a list of the most important issues you should be aware of when diving into C# in Godot, but if in doubt, also take a look over the official issue tracker for Mono issues.

  • As explained above, the C# project isn’t always kept in sync automatically when things are deleted, renamed or moved in Godot (#12917).
  • Writing editor plugins is possible, but it is currently quite convoluted.
  • Atualmente o estado não é salvo e restaurado durante o “hot-reloading”, com exceção das variáveis exportadas.
  • A exportação de projetos Mono é suportada apenas para plataformas desktop (Linux, Windows e macOS), Android, HTML5 e iOS. UWP não é suportado atualmente (#20271).
  • Os scripts C # anexados devem se referir a uma classe que tenha um nome de classe que corresponda ao nome do arquivo.
  • Existem alguns métodos como Get()/Set(), Call()/CallDeferred() e método de conexão de sinal Connect() que dependem dos padrões de nomeação da API snake_case de Godot. Então, por exemplo ao usar CallDeferred("AddChild"), AddChild não vai funcionar porque a API está esperando a chamada no formato snake_case como add_child. No entanto, você pode usar quaisquer propriedades ou métodos personalizados sem essa limitação.

Performance do C# no Godot

According to some preliminary benchmarks, the performance of C# in Godot — while generally in the same order of magnitude — is roughly ~4× that of GDScript in some naive cases. C++ is still a little faster; the specifics are going to vary according to your use case. GDScript is likely fast enough for most general scripting workloads. C# is faster, but requires some expensive marshalling when talking to Godot.

Using NuGet packages in Godot

NuGet packages can be installed and used with Godot, as with any C# project. Many IDEs are able to add packages directly. They can also be added manually by adding the package reference in the .csproj file located in the project root:

    <ItemGroup>
        <PackageReference Include="Newtonsoft.Json">
          <Version>11.0.2</Version>
        </PackageReference>
    </ItemGroup>
    ...
</Project>

Nota

Por padrão, ferramentas como NuGet colocam Version` como atributo do Nó PackageReference`. Você deve criar manualmente um nó de Versão como mostrado acima. Isto é porque a versão utilizada do MSBuild requer isto. (Isto será corrigido no Godot 4.0)

Whenever packages are added or modified, run nuget restore (not dotnet restore) in the root of the project directory. To ensure that NuGet packages will be available for msbuild to use, run:

msbuild /t:restore

Perfilando seu código C#

  • Mono log profiler is available for Linux and macOS. Due to a Mono change, it does not work on Windows currently.
  • Profiler de Mono Externo como JetBrains dotTrace pode ser usado como descrito aqui.

Configuração VS 2019 para depuração

Nota

Godot tem suporte integrado para fluxos de trabalho envolvendo várias IDEs populares de C#. O suporte nativo para o Visual Studio será incluso em versões futuras, mas enquanto isso, os passos abaixo podem permitir que você configure o Visual Studio 2019 para utilização dos projetos de Godot em C#.

  1. Instale o Visual Studio 2019 com os componentes .NET desktop development e Desktop development with C++ selecionados.
  2. Certifique-se de não ter Xamarin instalado. Não escolha a opção Mobile development with .NET. Xamarin altera as DLLs usadas pelo MonoDebugger, que quebra a depuração.
  3. Instale a extensão ``VSMonoDebugger <https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=GordianDotNet.VSMonoDebugger0d62>`_.
  4. No VS 2019 –> Extensions –> Mono ->Settings:
    • Selecione Debug/Deploy to local Windows.
    • Deixe Local Deploy Path em branco.
    • Defina a porta de depuração em Mono Debug Port para a porta definida em Godot –> Projeto –> Configurações de projeto –> Mono –> Agente depurador.
    • Selecione também Wait for Debugger nas opções do Mono dentro do Godot. Este Godot Addon pode ser útil.
  5. Execute o jogo em Godot. Godot apresentará a splash screen enquanto espera que seu depurador se conecte.
  6. No VS 2019, abra seu projeto e escolha Extensions –> Mono –> Attach to Mono Debugger.

Configuring Visual Studio Code for debugging

To configure Visual Studio Code for debugging open up a project in Godot. Click on Project and open the project settings. Scroll down and click on Debugger Agent under the Mono category. Then turn on the setting “wait for debugger.” Next, copy the port number and open up Visual Studio Code.

You need to download the Mono Debug extension from Microsoft. Then open the Godot project folder. Go to the run tab and click on create a launch.json file. Select C# Mono from the dropdown menu. When the launch.json file is automatically opened, change the port number to the number you copied previously and save the file. On the run tab, switch the run setting from launch to attach. Whenever you want to debug, make sure Wait for Debugger is turned on in Godot, run the project, and run the debugger in Visual Studio Code.