Esta série de tutoriais lhe mostrará como fazer um jogo de tiro em primeira pessoa para um jogador.
Ao longo desta série, nós cobriremos como:
- Fazer um personagem em primeira pessoa que pode se mover, correr e pular.
- Fazer uma máquina de estado de animação simples para manipular transições de animações.
- Adicionar três armas para o personagem, cada uma usando uma maneira diferente para lidar com colisões:
- Uma faca (usando uma Area)
- Uma pistola (cenas Bala)
- Uma espingarda (usando um Raycast)
- Adicionar dois tipos diferentes de granadas para o personagem:
- Uma granada normal
- Uma granada adesiva
- Adicionar a habilidade de agarrar e arremessar nós RigidBody
- Adicionar entradas de controle para o jogador
- Adicionar munição e recarga para todas as armas que consomem munição.
- Adicionar itens de munição e saúde
- Em dois tamanhos: grandes e pequenos
- Adicionar um torreão automático
- Que pode disparar atacando objetos bala ou um Raycast
- Adicionar alvos que quebram quando recebem dano o suficiente
- Adicionar sons que são reproduzidos quando armas disparam.
- Adicionar um menu principal simples:
- Com um menu de opções para alterar como o jogo é executado
- Com uma tela de seleção de níveis
- Adicionar um menu de pausa universal, que pode ser acessado em qualquer lugar
Embora este guia possa ser seguido por iniciantes, é altamente aconselhado completar Seu primeiro jogo se você é novo no Godot e/ou desenvolvimento de jogos antes de prosseguir nesta série de tutoriais.
Remember: Making 3D games is much harder than making 2D games. If you do not know how to make 2D games, you will likely struggle making 3D games.
This tutorial assumes you have experience working with the Godot editor, basic programming experience in GDScript, and basic experience in game development.
Você pode achar os ativos iniciais para este tutorial aqui:
Os ativos iniciais fornecidos contêm um modelo 3D animado, um bocado de modelos 3D para fazer níveis e umas poucas cenas já configuradas para este tutorial.
Todos os ativos fornecidos (a menos que indicado o contrário) foram originalmente criados por TwistedTwigleg, com alterações/adições feitas pela comunidade Godot. Todos os ativos originais fornecidos para este tutorial são disponibilizados sob a licença
Sinta-se à vontade para usá-los como quiser! Todos esses ativos originais pertencem à comunidade Godot, com os outros ativos pertencendo às pessoas listadas abaixo:
A cúpula celeste foi criada por StumpyStrust no OpenGameArt. Ela é licenciada sob a
A fonte usada é Titillium-Regular, licenciada sob a
SIL Open Font License, Version 1.1.
Você pode encontrar o projeto finalizado para cada parte ao final da página da respectiva parte
Nesta parte, faremos um jogador em primeira pessoa que pode se mover pelo ambiente.
By the end of this part, you will have a working first-person character who can move around the game environment, sprint, look around with a mouse based first person camera, jump into the air, and turn a flash light on and off.
Execute o Godot e abra o projeto incluso nos ativos iniciais.
While these assets are not necessarily required to use the scripts provided in this tutorial, they will make the tutorial much easier to follow, as there are several pre-setup scenes we will be using throughout the tutorial series.
First, open the project settings and go to the "Input Map" tab. You'll find several actions have already been defined. We will be using these actions for our player. Feel free to change the keys bound to these actions if you want.
Vamos olhar por um momento o que temos nos ativos iniciais.
Included in the starter assets are several scenes. For example, in
res:// we have 14 scenes, most of which we will be visiting as
we go through this tutorial series.
Por ora, vamos abrir
There are a bunch of scenes and a few textures in the
Assets folder. You can look at these if you want,
but we will not be exploring through
Assets in this tutorial series.
Assets contains all the models used
for each of the levels, as well as some textures and materials.
Fazendo a lógica de movimento em FPS¶
Depois de abrir
Player.tscn, vamos dar uma olhada rápida em como ela está configurada
First, notice how the player's collision shapes are set up. Using a vertical pointing capsule as the collision shape for the player is fairly common in most first person games.
We are adding a small square to the 'feet' of the player so the player does not feel like they are balancing on a single point.
We do want the 'feet' slightly higher than the bottom of the capsule so we can roll over slight edges. Where to place the 'feet' is dependent on your levels and how you want your player to feel.
Many times the player will notice the collision shape being circular when they walk to an edge and slide off. We are adding the small square at the bottom of the capsule to reduce sliding on, and around, edges.
Another thing to notice is how many nodes are children of
Rotation_Helper. This is because
Rotation_Helper contains all the nodes we want to rotate on the
X axis (up and down).
The reason behind this is so we can rotate
Player on the
Y axis, and
Had we not used
Rotation_helper, we would've likely had cases of rotating on
Y axes simultaneously, potentially further degenerating into a state of
rotation on all three axes in some cases.
See using transforms for more information
Attach a new script to the
Player node and call it
Let's program our player by adding the ability to move around, look around with the mouse, and jump.
Add the following code to
This is a lot of code, so let's break it down function by function:
While copy and pasting code is ill advised, as you can learn a lot from manually typing the code in, you can copy and paste the code from this page directly into the script editor.
If you do this, all the code copied will be using spaces instead of tabs.
To convert the spaces to tabs in the script editor, click the "edit" menu and select "Convert Indent To Tabs". This will convert all the spaces into tabs. You can select "Convert Indent To Spaces" to convert tabs back into spaces.
First, we define some class variables to dictate how our player will move about the world.
Throughout this tutorial, variables defined outside functions will be referred to as "class variables". This is because we can access any of these variables from any place in the script.
Let's go through each of the class variables:
GRAVITY: How strong gravity pulls us down.
vel: Our KinematicBody's velocity.
MAX_SPEED: The fastest speed we can reach. Once we hit this speed, we will not go any faster.
JUMP_SPEED: How high we can jump.
ACCEL: How quickly we accelerate. The higher the value, the sooner we get to max speed.
DEACCEL: How quickly we are going to decelerate. The higher the value, the sooner we will come to a complete stop.
MAX_SLOPE_ANGLE: The steepest angle our KinematicBody will consider as a 'floor'.
camera: The Camera node.
rotation_helper: A Spatial node holding everything we want to rotate on the X axis (up and down).
MOUSE_SENSITIVITY: How sensitive the mouse is. I find a value of
0.05works well for my mouse, but you may need to change it based on how sensitive your mouse is.
You can tweak many of these variables to get different results. For example, by lowering
JUMP_SPEED you can get a more 'floaty' feeling character.
Feel free to experiment!
You may have noticed that
MOUSE_SENSITIVITY is written in all caps like the other constants, but
MOUSE_SENSITIVITY is not a constant.
The reason behind this is we want to treat it like a constant variable (a variable that cannot change) throughout our script, but we want to be able to change the value later when we add customizable settings. So, in an effort to remind ourselves to treat it like a constant, it's named in all caps.
Now let's look at the
First we get the
rotation_helper nodes and store them into their variables.
Then we need to set the mouse mode to captured, so the mouse cannot leave the game window.
This will hide the mouse and keep it at the center of the screen. We do this for two reasons: The first reason being we do not want the player to see their mouse cursor as they play.
The second reason is because we do not want the cursor to leave the game window. If the cursor leaves the game window there could be instances where the player clicks outside the window, and then the game would lose focus. To assure neither of these issues happens, we capture the mouse cursor.
See Input documentation for the various mouse modes. We will only be using
MOUSE_MODE_VISIBLE in this tutorial series.
Next let's take a look at
All we're doing in
_physics_process is calling two functions:
process_input will be where we store all the code relating to player input. We want to call it first, before
anything else, so we have fresh player input to work with.
process_movement is where we'll send all the data necessary to the KinematicBody
so it can move through the game world.
Let's look at
dir como um Vector3 vazio.
dir will be used for storing the direction the player intends to move towards. Because we do not
want the player's previous input to effect the player beyond a single
process_movement call, we reset
Next we get the camera's global transform and store it as well, into the
The reason we need the camera's global transform is so we can use its directional vectors. Many have found directional vectors confusing, so let's take a second to explain how they work:
World space can be defined as: The space in which all objects are placed in, relative to a constant origin point. Every object, no matter if it is 2D or 3D, has a position in world space.
To put it another way: world space is the space in a universe where every object's position, rotation, and scale can be measured by a single, known, fixed point called the origin.
In Godot, the origin is at position
(0, 0, 0) with a rotation of
(0, 0, 0) and a scale of
(1, 1, 1).
When you open up the Godot editor and select a Spatial based node, a gizmo pops up. Each of the arrows points using world space directions by default.
If you want to move using the world space directional vectors, you'd do something like this:
Notice how we do not need to do any calculations to get world space directional vectors. We can define a few Vector3 variables and input the values pointing in each direction.
Here is what world space looks like in 2D:
The following images are just examples. Each arrow/rectangle represents a directional vector
And here is what it looks like for 3D:
Notice how in both examples, the rotation of the node does not change the directional arrows. This is because world space is a constant. No matter how you translate, rotate, or scale an object, world space will always point in the same direction.
Local space is different, because it takes the rotation of the object into account.
Local space can be defined as follows:
The space in which an object's position is the origin of the universe. Because the position
of the origin can be at
N many locations, the values derived from local space change
with the position of the origin.
This question from Game Development Stack Exchange has a much better explanation of world space and local space.
https://gamedev.stackexchange.com/questions/65783/what-are-world-space-and-eye-space-in-game-development (Local space and eye space are essentially the same thing in this context)
Each Basis has three vectors:
Each of those vectors point towards each of the local space vectors coming from that object.
To use the Spatial node's local directional vectors, we use this code:
Here is what local space looks like in 2D:
And here is what it looks like for 3D:
Here is what the Spatial gizmo shows when you are using local space mode. Notice how the arrows follow the rotation of the object on the left, which looks exactly the same as the 3D example for local space.
You can change between local and world space modes by pressing T or the little cube button when you have a Spatial based node selected.
Local vectors are confusing even for more experienced game developers, so do not worry if this all doesn't make a lot of sense. The key thing to remember about local vectors is that we are using local coordinates to get direction from the object's point of view, as opposed to using world vectors, which give direction from the world's point of view.
Okay, back to
Next we make a new variable called
input_movement_vector and assign it to an empty Vector2.
We will use this to make a virtual axis of sorts, to map the player's input to movement.
This may seem overkill for just the keyboard, but this will make sense later when we add joypad input.
Based on which directional movement action is pressed, we add to or subtract from
After we've checked each of the directional movement actions, we normalize
input_movement_vector. This makes it where
are within a
1 radius unit circle.
Next we add the camera's local
Z vector times
dir. This is so when the player presses forward or backwards, we add the camera's
Z axis so the player moves forward or backwards in relation to the camera.
Because the camera is rotated by
-180 degrees, we have to flip the
Z directional vector.
Normally forward would be the positive Z axis, so using
basis.z.normalized() would work,
but we are using
-basis.z.normalized() because our camera's Z axis faces backwards in relation
to the rest of the player.
We do the same thing for the camera's local
X vector, and instead of using
input_movement_vector.y we instead use
This makes it where the player moves left/right in relation to the camera when the player presses left/right.
Next we check if the player is on the floor using KinematicBody's
is_on_floor function. If it is, then we
check to see if the "movement_jump" action has just been pressed. If it has, then we set the player's
Y velocity to
Because we're setting the Y velocity, the player will jump into the air.
Then we check for the
ui_cancel action. This is so we can free/capture the mouse cursor when the
is pressed. We do this because otherwise we'd have no way to free the cursor, meaning it would be stuck until you terminate the
To free/capture the cursor, we check to see if the mouse is visible (freed) or not. If it is, we capture it, and if it's not, we make it visible (free it).
That's all we're doing right now for
process_input. We'll come back several times to this function as we add more complexities to our player.
Now let's look at
First we ensure that
dir does not have any movement on the
Y axis by setting its
Y value to zero.
Next we normalize
dir to ensure we're within a
1 radius unit circle. This makes it where we're moving at a constant speed regardless
of whether the player is moving straight or diagonally. If we did not normalize, the player would move faster on the diagonal than when going straight.
Next we add gravity to the player by adding
GRAVITY * delta to the player's
After that we assign the player's velocity to a new variable (called
hvel) and remove any movement on the
Next we set a new variable (
target) to the player's direction vector.
Then we multiply that by the player's max speed so we know how far the player will move in the direction provided by
After that we make a new variable for acceleration, named
We then take the dot product of
hvel to see if the player is moving according to
hvel does not have any
Y velocity, meaning we are only checking if the player is moving forwards, backwards, left, or right.
If the player is moving according to
hvel, then we set
accel to the
ACCEL constant so the player will accelerate, otherwise we set
DEACCEL constant so the player will decelerate.
Then we interpolate the horizontal velocity, set the player's
Z velocity to the interpolated horizontal velocity,
move_and_slide to let the KinematicBody handle moving the player through the physics world.
All the code in
process_movement is exactly the same as the movement code from the Kinematic Character demo!
The final function we have is the
_input function, and thankfully it's fairly short:
First we make sure that the event we are dealing with is an InputEventMouseMotion event. We also want to check if the cursor is captured, as we do not want to rotate if it is not.
See Mouse and input coordinates for a list of possible input events.
If the event is indeed a mouse motion event and the cursor is captured, we rotate based on the relative mouse motion provided by InputEventMouseMotion.
First we rotate the
rotation_helper node on the
X axis, using the relative mouse motion's
Y value, provided by InputEventMouseMotion.
Then we rotate the entire KinematicBody on the
Y axis by the relative mouse motion's
Godot converts relative mouse motion into a Vector2 where mouse movement going
up and down is
-1 respectively. Right and Left movement is
Because of how we are rotating the player, we multiply the relative mouse motion's
X value by
-1 so mouse motion going left and right rotates the player left and right
in the same direction.
Finally, we clamp the
X rotation to be between
degrees so the player cannot rotate themselves upside down.
See using transforms for more information on rotating transforms.
To test the code, open up the scene named
Testing_Area.tscn, if it's not already opened up. We will be using
this scene as we go through the next few tutorial parts, so be sure to keep it open in one of your scene tabs.
Go ahead and test your code either by pressing F6 with
Testing_Area.tscn as the open tab, by pressing the
play button in the top right corner, or by pressing F5.
You should now be able to walk around, jump in the air, and look around using the mouse.
Giving the player a flash light and the option to sprint¶
Before we get to making the weapons work, there are a couple more things we should add.
Many FPS games have an option to sprint and a flashlight. We can easily add these to our player, so let's do that!
First we need a few more class variables in our player script:
All the sprinting variables work exactly the same as the non sprinting variables with similar names.
is_sprinting is a boolean to track whether the player is currently sprinting, and
flashlight is a variable
we will be using to hold the player's flash light node.
Now we need to add a few lines of code, starting in
_ready. Add the following to
This gets the
Flashlight node and assigns it to the
Now we need to change some of the code in
process_input. Add the following somewhere in
Let's go over the additions:
true when the player is holding down the
movement_sprint action, and
movement_sprint action is released. In
process_movement we'll add the code that makes the player faster when
they sprint. Here in
process_input we are just going to change the
We do something similar to freeing/capturing the cursor for handling the flashlight. We first check to see if the
was just pressed. If it was, we then check to see if
flashlight is visible in the scene tree. If it is, then we hide it, and if it's not, we show it.
Now we need to change a couple things in
process_movement. First, replace
target *= MAX_SPEED with the following:
Now instead of always multiplying
MAX_SPEED, we first check to see if the player is sprinting or not.
If the player is sprinting, we instead multiply
Now all that's left is to change the acceleration when sprinting. Change
accel = ACCEL to the following:
Now, when the player is sprinting, we'll use
SPRINT_ACCEL instead of
ACCEL, which will accelerate the player faster.
You should now be able to sprint if you press Shift, and can toggle the flash light on and off by pressing F!
Go try it out! You can change the sprint-related class variables to make the player faster or slower when sprinting!
Whew! That was a lot of work. Now you have a fully working first person character!
In Part 2 we will add some guns to our player character.
At this point we've recreated the Kinematic character demo from first person perspective with sprinting and a flash light!
Currently the player script would be at an ideal state for making all sorts of first person games. For example: Horror games, platformer games, adventure games, and more!
If you ever get lost, be sure to read over the code again!
You can download the finished project for this part here: