Shading language

Вступ

Godot uses a shading language similar to GLSL ES 3.0. Most datatypes and functions are supported, and the few remaining ones will likely be added over time.

If you are already familiar with GLSL, the Godot Shader Migration Guide is a resource that will help you transition from regular GLSL to Godot's shading language.

Типи даних

Most GLSL ES 3.0 datatypes are supported:

Тип

Опис

void

Void datatype, useful only for functions that return nothing.

bool

Boolean datatype, can only contain true or false.

bvec2

Two-component vector of booleans.

bvec3

Three-component vector of booleans.

bvec4

Four-component vector of booleans.

int

Ціле число зі знаком.

ivec2

Two-component vector of signed integers.

ivec3

Three-component vector of signed integers.

ivec4

Four-component vector of signed integers.

uint

Unsigned scalar integer; can't contain negative numbers.

uvec2

Two-component vector of unsigned integers.

uvec3

Three-component vector of unsigned integers.

uvec4

Four-component vector of unsigned integers.

float

Число з рухомою крапкою.

vec2

Two-component vector of floating-point values.

vec3

Three-component vector of floating-point values.

vec4

Four-component vector of floating-point values.

mat2

2x2 matrix, in column major order.

mat3

3x3 matrix, in column major order.

mat4

4x4 matrix, in column major order.

sampler2D

Sampler type for binding 2D textures, which are read as float.

isampler2D

Sampler type for binding 2D textures, which are read as signed integer.

usampler2D

Sampler type for binding 2D textures, which are read as unsigned integer.

sampler2DArray

Sampler type for binding 2D texture arrays, which are read as float.

isampler2DArray

Sampler type for binding 2D texture arrays, which are read as signed integer.

usampler2DArray

Sampler type for binding 2D texture arrays, which are read as unsigned integer.

sampler3D

Sampler type for binding 3D textures, which are read as float.

isampler3D

Sampler type for binding 3D textures, which are read as signed integer.

usampler3D

Sampler type for binding 3D textures, which are read as unsigned integer.

samplerCube

Sampler type for binding Cubemaps, which are read as floats.

Casting

Just like GLSL ES 3.0, implicit casting between scalars and vectors of the same size but different type is not allowed. Casting of types of different size is also not allowed. Conversion must be done explicitly via constructors.

Приклад:

float a = 2; // invalid
float a = 2.0; // valid
float a = float(2); // valid

Default integer constants are signed, so casting is always needed to convert to unsigned:

int a = 2; // valid
uint a = 2; // invalid
uint a = uint(2); // valid

Члени

Individual scalar members of vector types are accessed via the "x", "y", "z" and "w" members. Alternatively, using "r", "g", "b" and "a" also works and is equivalent. Use whatever fits best for your needs.

For matrices, use the m[row][column] indexing syntax to access each scalar, or m[idx] to access a vector by row index. For example, for accessing the y position of an object in a mat4 you use m[3][1].

Constructing

Construction of vector types must always pass:

// The required amount of scalars
vec4 a = vec4(0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0);
// Complementary vectors and/or scalars
vec4 a = vec4(vec2(0.0, 1.0), vec2(2.0, 3.0));
vec4 a = vec4(vec3(0.0, 1.0, 2.0), 3.0);
// A single scalar for the whole vector
vec4 a = vec4(0.0);

Construction of matrix types requires vectors of the same dimension as the matrix. You can also build a diagonal matrix using matx(float) syntax. Accordingly, mat4(1.0) is an identity matrix.

mat2 m2 = mat2(vec2(1.0, 0.0), vec2(0.0, 1.0));
mat3 m3 = mat3(vec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0), vec3(0.0, 1.0, 0.0), vec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0));
mat4 identity = mat4(1.0);

Matrices can also be built from a matrix of another dimension. There are two rules : If a larger matrix is constructed from a smaller matrix, the additional rows and columns are set to the values they would have in an identity matrix. If a smaller matrix is constructed from a larger matrix, the top, left submatrix of the larger matrix is used.

mat3 basis = mat3(WORLD_MATRIX);
mat4 m4 = mat4(basis);
mat2 m2 = mat2(m4);

Swizzling

It is possible to obtain any combination of components in any order, as long as the result is another vector type (or scalar). This is easier shown than explained:

vec4 a = vec4(0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0);
vec3 b = a.rgb; // Creates a vec3 with vec4 components.
vec3 b = a.ggg; // Also valid; creates a vec3 and fills it with a single vec4 component.
vec3 b = a.bgr; // "b" will be vec3(2.0, 1.0, 0.0).
vec3 b = a.xyz; // Also rgba, xyzw are equivalent.
vec3 b = a.stp; // And stpq (for texture coordinates).
float c = b.w; // Invalid, because "w" is not present in vec3 b.
vec3 c = b.xrt; // Invalid, mixing different styles is forbidden.
b.rrr = a.rgb; // Invalid, assignment with duplication.
b.bgr = a.rgb; // Valid assignment. "b"'s "blue" component will be "a"'s "red" and vice versa.

Точність

It is possible to add precision modifiers to datatypes; use them for uniforms, variables, arguments and varyings:

lowp vec4 a = vec4(0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0); // low precision, usually 8 bits per component mapped to 0-1
mediump vec4 a = vec4(0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0); // medium precision, usually 16 bits or half float
highp vec4 a = vec4(0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0); // high precision, uses full float or integer range (default)

Using lower precision for some operations can speed up the math involved (at the cost of less precision). This is rarely needed in the vertex processor function (where full precision is needed most of the time), but is often useful in the fragment processor.

Some architectures (mainly mobile) can benefit significantly from this, but there are downsides such as the additional overhead of conversion between precisions. Refer to the documentation of the target architecture for further information. In many cases, mobile drivers cause inconsistent or unexpected behavior and it is best to avoid specifying precision unless necessary.

Масиви

Arrays are containers for multiple variables of a similar type. Note: As of Godot 3.2, only local and varying arrays have been implemented.

Local arrays

Local arrays are declared in functions. They can use all of the allowed datatypes, except samplers. The array declaration follows a C-style syntax: [const] + [precision] + typename + identifier + [array size].

void fragment() {
    float arr[3];
}

They can be initialized at the beginning like:

float float_arr[3] = float[3] (1.0, 0.5, 0.0); // first constructor

int int_arr[3] = int[] (2, 1, 0); // second constructor

vec2 vec2_arr[3] = { vec2(1.0, 1.0), vec2(0.5, 0.5), vec2(0.0, 0.0) }; // third constructor

bool bool_arr[] = { true, true, false }; // fourth constructor - size is defined automatically from the element count

You can declare multiple arrays (even with different sizes) in one expression:

float a[3] = float[3] (1.0, 0.5, 0.0),
b[2] = { 1.0, 0.5 },
c[] = { 0.7 },
d = 0.0,
e[5];

To access an array element, use the indexing syntax:

float arr[3];

arr[0] = 1.0; // setter

COLOR.r = arr[0]; // getter

Arrays also have a built-in function .length() (not to be confused with the built-in length() function). It doesn't accept any parameters and will return the array's size.

float arr[] = { 0.0, 1.0, 0.5, -1.0 };
for (int i = 0; i < arr.length(); i++) {
    // ...
}

Примітка

If you use an index below 0 or greater than array size - the shader will crash and break rendering. To prevent this, use length(), if, or clamp() functions to ensure the index is between 0 and the array's length. Always carefully test and check your code. If you pass a constant expression or a simple number, the editor will check its bounds to prevent this crash.

Константи

Use the const keyword before the variable declaration to make that variable immutable, which means that it cannot be modified. All basic types, except samplers can be declared as constants. Accessing and using a constant value is slightly faster than using a uniform. Constants must be initialized at their declaration.

const vec2 a = vec2(0.0, 1.0);
vec2 b;

a = b; // invalid
b = a; // valid

Constants cannot be modified and additionally cannot have hints, but multiple of them (if they have the same type) can be declared in a single expression e.g

const vec2 V1 = vec2(1, 1), V2 = vec2(2, 2);

Similar to variables, arrays can also be declared with const.

const float arr[] = { 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 };

arr[0] = 1.0; // invalid

COLOR.r = arr[0]; // valid

Constants can be declared both globally (outside of any function) or locally (inside a function). Global constants are useful when you want to have access to a value throughout your shader that does not need to be modified. Like uniforms, global constants are shared between all shader stages, but they are not accessible outside of the shader.

shader_type spatial;

const float PI = 3.14159265358979323846;

Оператори

Godot shading language supports the same set of operators as GLSL ES 3.0. Below is the list of them in precedence order:

Precedence

Клас

Оператор

1 (найвищий)

групування за допомогою дужок

()

2

унарні

+, -, !, ~

3

мультиплікативні

/, *, %

4

адитивні

+, -

5

зсув за бітами

<<, >>

6

реляційні

<, >, <=, >=

7

рівність

==, !=

8

bit-wise AND

&

9

bit-wise exclusive OR

^

10

bit-wise inclusive OR

|

11

logical AND

&&

12 (найнижчий)

logical inclusive OR

||

Flow control

Godot Shading language supports the most common types of flow control:

// if and else
if (cond) {

} else {

}

// switch
switch(i) { // signed integer expression
    case -1:
        break;
    case 0:
        return; // break or return
    case 1: // pass-through
    case 2:
        break;
    //...
    default: // optional
        break;
}

// for loops
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {

}

// while
while (true) {

}

// do while
do {

} while(true);

Keep in mind that, in modern GPUs, an infinite loop can exist and can freeze your application (including editor). Godot can't protect you from this, so be careful not to make this mistake!

Попередження

При експорті проєкту GLES2 у HTML5 буде використовуватися WebGL 1.0. WebGL 1.0 не підтримує динамічні цикли, тому шейдери, що використовують їх, там не працюватимуть.

Відкидання

Fragment and light functions can use the discard keyword. If used, the fragment is discarded and nothing is written.

Функції

It is possible to define functions in a Godot shader. They use the following syntax:

ret_type func_name(args) {
    return ret_type; // if returning a value
}

// a more specific example:

int sum2(int a, int b) {
    return a + b;
}

You can only use functions that have been defined above (higher in the editor) the function from which you are calling them.

Function arguments can have special qualifiers:

  • in: Means the argument is only for reading (default).

  • out: Means the argument is only for writing.

  • inout: Means the argument is fully passed via reference.

Example below:

void sum2(int a, int b, inout int result) {
    result = a + b;
}

Varyings

To send data from the vertex to the fragment processor function, varyings are used. They are set for every primitive vertex in the vertex processor, and the value is interpolated for every pixel in the fragment processor.

shader_type spatial;

varying vec3 some_color;
void vertex() {
    some_color = NORMAL; // Make the normal the color.
}

void fragment() {
    ALBEDO = some_color;
}

Varying can also be an array:

shader_type spatial;

varying float var_arr[3];
void vertex() {
    var_arr[0] = 1.0;
    var_arr[1] = 0.0;
}

void fragment() {
    ALBEDO = vec3(var_arr[0], var_arr[1], var_arr[2]); // red color
}

Interpolation qualifiers

Certain values are interpolated during the shading pipeline. You can modify how these interpolations are done by using interpolation qualifiers.

shader_type spatial;

varying flat vec3 our_color;

void vertex() {
    our_color = COLOR.rgb;
}

void fragment() {
    ALBEDO = our_color;
}

There are two possible interpolation qualifiers:

Qualifier

Опис

Нейтральний

The value is not interpolated.

Згладжування

The value is interpolated in a perspective-correct fashion. This is the default.

Uniforms

Passing values to shaders is possible. These are global to the whole shader and are called uniforms. When a shader is later assigned to a material, the uniforms will appear as editable parameters in it. Uniforms can't be written from within the shader.

shader_type spatial;

uniform float some_value;

You can set uniforms in the editor in the material. Or you can set them through GDScript:

material.set_shader_param("some_value", some_value)

Примітка

The first argument to set_shader_param is the name of the uniform in the shader. It must match exactly to the name of the uniform in the shader or else it will not be recognized.

Any GLSL type except for void can be a uniform. Additionally, Godot provides optional shader hints to make the compiler understand for what the uniform is used.

shader_type spatial;

uniform vec4 color : hint_color;
uniform float amount : hint_range(0, 1);
uniform vec4 other_color : hint_color = vec4(1.0);

It's important to understand that textures that are supplied as color require hints for proper sRGB->linear conversion (i.e. hint_albedo), as Godot's 3D engine renders in linear color space.

Full list of hints below:

Тип

Підказка

Опис

vec4

hint_color

Used as color

int, float

hint_range(min, max[, step])

Used as range (with min/max/step)

sampler2D

hint_albedo

Used as albedo color, default white

sampler2D

hint_black_albedo

Used as albedo color, default black

sampler2D

hint_normal

Used as normalmap

sampler2D

hint_white

As value, default to white.

sampler2D

hint_black

As value, default to black

sampler2D

hint_aniso

As flowmap, default to right.

GDScript uses different variable types than GLSL does, so when passing variables from GDScript to shaders, Godot converts the type automatically. Below is a table of the corresponding types:

GDScript type

GLSL type

bool

bool

int

int

float

float

Vector2

vec2

Vector3

vec3

Color

vec4

Transform

mat4

Transform2D

mat4

Примітка

Be careful when setting shader uniforms from GDScript, no error will be thrown if the type does not match. Your shader will just exhibit undefined behavior.

Uniforms can also be assigned default values:

shader_type spatial;

uniform vec4 some_vector = vec4(0.0);
uniform vec4 some_color : hint_color = vec4(1.0);

Built-in variables

A large number of built-in variables are available, like UV, COLOR and VERTEX. What variables are available depends on the type of shader (spatial, canvas_item or particle) and the function used (vertex, fragment or light). For a list of the build-in variables that are available, please see the corresponding pages:

Built-in functions

A large number of built-in functions are supported, conforming to GLSL ES 3.0. When vec_type (float), vec_int_type, vec_uint_type, vec_bool_type nomenclature is used, it can be scalar or vector.

Примітка

For a list of the functions that are not available in the GLES2 backend, please see the Differences between GLES2 and GLES3 doc.

Функція

Опис

vec_type radians (vec_type degrees)

Convert degrees to radians

vec_type degrees (vec_type radians)

Convert radians to degrees

vec_type sin (vec_type x)

Синус

vec_type cos (vec_type x)

Синусоїда

vec_type tan (vec_type x)

Дотична

vec_type asin (vec_type x)

Arcsine

vec_type acos (vec_type x)

Arccosine

vec_type atan (vec_type y_over_x)

Arctangent

vec_type atan (vec_type y, vec_type x)

Arctangent to convert vector to angle

vec_type sinh (vec_type x)

Hyperbolic sine

vec_type cosh (vec_type x)

Hyperbolic cosine

vec_type tanh (vec_type x)

Hyperbolic tangent

vec_type asinh (vec_type x)

Inverse hyperbolic sine

vec_type acosh (vec_type x)

Inverse hyperbolic cosine

vec_type atanh (vec_type x)

Inverse hyperbolic tangent

vec_type pow (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Power (undefined if x < 0 or if x = 0 and y <= 0)

vec_type exp (vec_type x)

Base-e exponential

vec_type exp2 (vec_type x)

Base-2 exponential

vec_type log (vec_type x)

Natural logarithm

vec_type log2 (vec_type x)

Base-2 logarithm

vec_type sqrt (vec_type x)

Square root

vec_type inversesqrt (vec_type x)

Inverse square root

vec_type abs (vec_type x)

Абсолютний

ivec_type abs (ivec_type x)

Абсолютний

vec_type sign (vec_type x)

Підписати

ivec_type sign (ivec_type x)

Підписати

vec_type floor (vec_type x)

Підлога

vec_type round (vec_type x)

Округлені

vec_type roundEven (vec_type x)

Round to the nearest even number

vec_type trunc (vec_type x)

Truncation

vec_type ceil (vec_type x)

Ceil

vec_type fract (vec_type x)

дробовий

vec_type mod (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Залишок

vec_type mod (vec_type x , float y)

Залишок

vec_type modf (vec_type x, out vec_type i)

Fractional of x, with i as integer part

vec_type min (vec_type a, vec_type b)

Мінімум

vec_type max (vec_type a, vec_type b)

Максимальний

vec_type clamp (vec_type x, vec_type min, vec_type max)

Clamp to min..max

float mix (float a, float b, float c)

Linear interpolate

vec_type mix (vec_type a, vec_type b, float c)

Linear interpolate (scalar coefficient)

vec_type mix (vec_type a, vec_type b, vec_type c)

Linear interpolate (vector coefficient)

vec_type mix (vec_type a, vec_type b, bvec_type c)

Linear interpolate (boolean-vector selection)

vec_type step (vec_type a, vec_type b)

b[i] < a[i] ? 0.0 : 1.0

vec_type step (float a, vec_type b)

b[i] < a ? 0.0 : 1.0

vec_type smoothstep (vec_type a, vec_type b, vec_type c)

Hermite interpolate

vec_type smoothstep (float a, float b, vec_type c)

Hermite interpolate

bvec_type isnan (vec_type x)

Returns true if scalar or vector component is NaN

bvec_type isinf (vec_type x)

Returns true if scalar or vector component is INF

ivec_type floatBitsToInt (vec_type x)

Float->Int bit copying, no conversion

uvec_type floatBitsToUint (vec_type x)

Float->UInt bit copying, no conversion

vec_type intBitsToFloat (ivec_type x)

Int->Float bit copying, no conversion

vec_type uintBitsToFloat (uvec_type x)

UInt->Float bit copying, no conversion

float length (vec_type x)

Vector length

float distance (vec_type a, vec_type b)

Distance between vectors i.e length(a - b)

float dot (vec_type a, vec_type b)

Dot product

vec3 cross (vec3 a, vec3 b)

Cross product

vec_type normalize (vec_type x)

Normalize to unit length

vec3 reflect (vec3 I, vec3 N)

Віддзеркалення

vec3 refract (vec3 I, vec3 N, float eta)

Refract

vec_type faceforward (vec_type N, vec_type I, vec_type Nref)

If dot(Nref, I) < 0, return N, otherwise –N

mat_type matrixCompMult (mat_type x, mat_type y)

Matrix component multiplication

mat_type outerProduct (vec_type column, vec_type row)

Matrix outer product

mat_type transpose (mat_type m)

Transpose matrix

float determinant (mat_type m)

Matrix determinant

mat_type inverse (mat_type m)

Inverse matrix

bvec_type lessThan (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Bool vector comparison on < int/uint/float vectors

bvec_type greaterThan (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Bool vector comparison on > int/uint/float vectors

bvec_type lessThanEqual (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Bool vector comparison on <= int/uint/float vectors

bvec_type greaterThanEqual (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Bool vector comparison on >= int/uint/float vectors

bvec_type equal (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Bool vector comparison on == int/uint/float vectors

bvec_type notEqual (vec_type x, vec_type y)

Bool vector comparison on != int/uint/float vectors

bool any (bvec_type x)

Any component is true

bool all (bvec_type x)

All components are true

bvec_type not (bvec_type x)

Invert boolean vector

ivec2 textureSize (sampler2D_type s, int lod)

Get the size of a 2D texture

ivec3 textureSize (sampler2DArray_type s, int lod)

Get the size of a 2D texture array

ivec3 textureSize (sampler3D s, int lod)

Get the size of a 3D texture

ivec2 textureSize (samplerCube s, int lod)

Get the size of a cubemap texture

vec4_type texture (sampler2D_type s, vec2 uv [, float bias])

Perform a 2D texture read

vec4_type texture (sampler2DArray_type s, vec3 uv [, float bias])

Perform a 2D texture array read

vec4_type texture (sampler3D_type s, vec3 uv [, float bias])

Perform a 3D texture read

vec4 texture (samplerCube s, vec3 uv [, float bias])

Perform a cubemap texture read

vec4_type textureProj (sampler2D_type s, vec3 uv [, float bias])

Perform a 2D texture read with projection

vec4_type textureProj (sampler2D_type s, vec4 uv [, float bias])

Perform a 2D texture read with projection

vec4_type textureProj (sampler3D_type s, vec4 uv [, float bias])

Perform a 3D texture read with projection

vec4_type textureLod (sampler2D_type s, vec2 uv, float lod)

Perform a 2D texture read at custom mipmap

vec4_type textureLod (sampler2DArray_type s, vec3 uv, float lod)

Perform a 2D texture array read at custom mipmap

vec4_type textureLod (sampler3D_type s, vec3 uv, float lod)

Perform a 3D texture read at custom mipmap

vec4 textureLod (samplerCube s, vec3 uv, float lod)

Perform a 3D texture read at custom mipmap

vec4_type textureProjLod (sampler2D_type s, vec3 uv, float lod)

Perform a 2D texture read with projection/LOD

vec4_type textureProjLod (sampler2D_type s, vec4 uv, float lod)

Perform a 2D texture read with projection/LOD

vec4_type textureProjLod (sampler3D_type s, vec4 uv, float lod)

Perform a 3D texture read with projection/LOD

vec4_type texelFetch (sampler2D_type s, ivec2 uv, int lod)

Fetch a single texel using integer coordinates

vec4_type texelFetch (sampler2DArray_type s, ivec3 uv, int lod)

Fetch a single texel using integer coordinates

vec4_type texelFetch (sampler3D_type s, ivec3 uv, int lod)

Fetch a single texel using integer coordinates

vec_type dFdx (vec_type p)

Derivative in x using local differencing

vec_type dFdy (vec_type p)

Derivative in y using local differencing

vec_type fwidth (vec_type p)

Sum of absolute derivative in x and y