自定义Godot服务

简介

Godot将多线程实现为服务。服务是守护进程,用于管理数据、进程和推送结果。服务实现中介者模式,该模式为引擎和其他模块解释资源ID和过程数据。此外,服务要求对其RID分配拥有所有权。

本指南假设读者知道如何创建C++模块和Godot数据类型。如果没有,请参考 自定义C++模块

可以做什么?

  • 添加人工智能。
  • 添加自定义异步线程。
  • 添加对新输入设备的支持。
  • 添加写线程。
  • 添加自定义VoIP协议。
  • 以及更多…

创建Godot服务

至少,服务必须具有静态实例、睡眠计时器、线程循环、初始化状态、和清理过程。

#ifndef HILBERT_HOTEL_H
#define HILBERT_HOTEL_H

#include "core/list.h"
#include "core/object.h"
#include "core/os/thread.h"
#include "core/os/mutex.h"
#include "core/rid.h"
#include "core/set.h"
#include "core/variant.h"

class HilbertHotel : public Object {
        GDCLASS(HilbertHotel, Object);

        static HilbertHotel *singleton;
        static void thread_func(void *p_udata);

private:
        bool thread_exited;
        mutable bool exit_thread;
        Thread *thread;
        Mutex *mutex;

public:
        static HilbertHotel *get_singleton();
        Error init();
        void lock();
        void unlock();
        void finish();

protected:
        static void _bind_methods();

private:
        uint64_t counter;
        RID_Owner<InfiniteBus> bus_owner;
        // https://github.com/godotengine/godot/blob/master/core/rid.h#L196
        Set<RID> buses;
        void _emit_occupy_room(uint64_t room, RID rid);

public:
        RID create_bus();
        Variant get_bus_info(RID id);
        bool empty();
        bool delete_bus(RID id);
        void clear();
        void register_rooms();
        HilbertHotel();
};

#endif
#include "hilbert_hotel.h"

#include "core/dictionary.h"
#include "core/list.h"
#include "core/os/os.h"
#include "core/variant.h"

#include "prime_225.h"

void HilbertHotel::thread_func(void *p_udata) {

        HilbertHotel *ac = (HilbertHotel *) p_udata;
        uint64_t msdelay = 1000;

        while (!ac->exit_thread) {
                if (!ac->empty()) {
                        ac->lock();
                        ac->register_rooms();
                        ac->unlock();
                }
                OS::get_singleton()->delay_usec(msdelay * 1000);
        }
}

Error HilbertHotel::init() {
        thread_exited = false;
        counter = 0;
        mutex = Mutex::create();
        thread = Thread::create(HilbertHotel::thread_func, this);
        return OK;
}

HilbertHotel *HilbertHotel::singleton = NULL;

HilbertHotel *HilbertHotel::get_singleton() {
        return singleton;
}

void HilbertHotel::register_rooms() {
        for (Set<RID>::Element *e = buses.front(); e; e = e->next()) {
                auto bus = bus_owner.getornull(e->get());

                if (bus) {
                        uint64_t room = bus->next_room();
                        _emit_occupy_room(room, bus->get_self());
                }
        }
}

void HilbertHotel::unlock() {
        if (!thread || !mutex) {
                return;
        }

        mutex->unlock();
}

void HilbertHotel::lock() {
        if (!thread || !mutex) {
                return;
        }

        mutex->lock();
}

void HilbertHotel::_emit_occupy_room(uint64_t room, RID rid) {
        _HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->_occupy_room(room, rid);
}

Variant HilbertHotel::get_bus_info(RID id) {
        InfiniteBus *)bus = bus_owner.getornull(id);

        if (bus) {
                Dictionary d;
                d["prime"] = bus->get_bus_num();
                d["current_room"] = bus->get_current_room();
                return d;
        }

        return Variant();
}

void HilbertHotel::finish() {
        if (!thread) {
                return;
        }

        exit_thread = true;
        Thread::wait_to_finish(thread);

        memdelete(thread);

        if (mutex) {
                memdelete(mutex);
        }

        thread = NULL;
}

RID HilbertHotel::create_bus() {
        lock();
        InfiniteBus *ptr = memnew(InfiniteBus(PRIME[counter++]));
        RID ret = bus_owner.make_rid(ptr);
        ptr->set_self(ret);
        buses.insert(ret);
        unlock();

        return ret;
}

// https://github.com/godotengine/godot/blob/master/core/rid.h#L187
bool HilbertHotel::delete_bus(RID id) {
        if (bus_owner.owns(id)) {
                lock();
                InfiniteBus *b = bus_owner.get(id);
                bus_owner.free(id);
                buses.erase(id);
                memdelete(b);
                unlock();
                return true;
        }

        return false;
}

void HilbertHotel::clear() {
        for (Set<RID>::Element *e = buses.front(); e; e = e->next()) {
                delete_bus(e->get());
        }
}

bool HilbertHotel::empty() {
        return buses.size() <= 0;
}

void HilbertHotel::_bind_methods() {
}

HilbertHotel::HilbertHotel() {
        singleton = this;
}
/* prime_225.h */

#include "core/int_types.h"

const uint64_t PRIME[225] = {
                2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,
                29,31,37,41,43,47,53,59,61,
                67,71,73,79,83,89,97,101,103,
                107,109,113,127,131,137,139,149,151,
                157,163,167,173,179,181,191,193,197,
                199,211,223,227,229,233,239,241,251,
                257,263,269,271,277,281,283,293,307,
                311,313,317,331,337,347,349,353,359,
                367,373,379,383,389,397,401,409,419,
                421,431,433,439,443,449,457,461,463,
                467,479,487,491,499,503,509,521,523,
                541,547,557,563,569,571,577,587,593,
                599,601,607,613,617,619,631,641,643,
                647,653,659,661,673,677,683,691,701,
                709,719,727,733,739,743,751,757,761,
                769,773,787,797,809,811,821,823,827,
                829,839,853,857,859,863,877,881,883,
                887,907,911,919,929,937,941,947,953,
                967,971,977,983,991,997,1009,1013,1019,
                1021,1031,1033,1039,1049,1051,1061,1063,1069,
                1087,1091,1093,1097,1103,1109,1117,1123,1129,
                1151,1153,1163,1171,1181,1187,1193,1201,1213,
                1217,1223,1229,1231,1237,1249,1259,1277,1279,
                1283,1289,1291,1297,1301,1303,1307,1319,1321,
                1327,1361,1367,1373,1381,1399,1409,1423,1427
};

自定义托管资源数据

Godot服务实现了中介模式。所有数据类型都继承 RID_Data`RID_Owner <MyRID_Data> 在调用 make_rid 时拥有对象。仅在调试模式期间,RID_Owner维护RID列表。实际上,RID类似于编写面向对象的C代码。

class InfiniteBus : public RID_Data {
        RID self;

private:
        uint64_t prime_num;
        uint64_t num;

public:
        uint64_t next_room() {
                return prime_num * num++;
        }

        uint64_t get_bus_num() const {
                return prime_num;
        }

        uint64_t get_current_room() const {
                return prime_num * num;
        }

        _FORCE_INLINE_ void set_self(const RID &p_self) {
                self = p_self;
        }

        _FORCE_INLINE_ RID get_self() const {
                return self;
        }

        InfiniteBus(uint64_t prime) : prime_num(prime), num(1) {};
        ~InfiniteBus() {};
}

参考

在GDScript中注册类

服务在 register_types.cpp 中分配。构造函数设置静态实例,init() 创建托管线程; unregister_types.cpp 清理服务。

由于Godot服务类创建了一个实例并将其绑定到静态单例,因此绑定该类可能不会引用正确的实例。因此,必须创建一个虚拟类来引用正确的Godot服务。

register_server_types() 中,Engine :: get_singleton() -> add_singleton 用于在GDScript中注册虚拟类。

/* register_types.cpp */

#include "register_types.h"

#include "core/class_db.h"
#include "core/engine.h"

#include "hilbert_hotel.h"

static HilbertHotel *hilbert_hotel = NULL;
static _HilbertHotel *_hilbert_hotel = NULL;

void register_hilbert_hotel_types() {
        hilbert_hotel = memnew(HilbertHotel);
        hilbert_hotel->init();
        _hilbert_hotel = memnew(_HilbertHotel);
        ClassDB::register_class<_HilbertHotel>();
        Engine::get_singleton()->add_singleton(Engine::Singleton("HilbertHotel", _HilbertHotel::get_singleton()));
}

void unregister_hilbert_hotel_types() {
        if (hilbert_hotel) {
                hilbert_hotel->finish();
                memdelete(hilbert_hotel);
        }

        if (_hilbert_hotel) {
                memdelete(_hilbert_hotel);
        }
}
/* register_types.h */

/* Yes, the word in the middle must be the same as the module folder name */
void register_hilbert_hotel_types();
void unregister_hilbert_hotel_types();

绑定方法

虚拟类将单例方法绑定到GDScript。在大多数情况下,虚拟类方法封装在内。

Variant _HilbertHotel::get_bus_info(RID id) {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->get_bus_info(id);
}

绑定信号

可以通过调用GDScript虚拟对象向GDScript发出信号。

void HilbertHotel::_emit_occupy_room(uint64_t room, RID rid) {
        _HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->_occupy_room(room, rid);
}
class _HilbertHotel : public Object {
        GDCLASS(_HilbertHotel, Object);

        friend class HilbertHotel;
        static _HilbertHotel *singleton;

protected:
        static void _bind_methods();

private:
        void _occupy_room(int room_number, RID bus);

public:
        RID create_bus();
        void connect_signals();
        bool delete_bus(RID id);
        static _HilbertHotel *get_singleton();
        Variant get_bus_info(RID id);

        _HilbertHotel();
        ~_HilbertHotel();
};

#endif
_HilbertHotel *_HilbertHotel::singleton = NULL;
_HilbertHotel *_HilbertHotel::get_singleton() { return singleton; }

RID _HilbertHotel::create_bus() {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->create_bus();
}

bool _HilbertHotel::delete_bus(RID rid) {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->delete_bus(rid);
}

void _HilbertHotel::_occupy_room(int room_number, RID bus) {
        emit_signal("occupy_room", room_number, bus);
}

Variant _HilbertHotel::get_bus_info(RID id) {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->get_bus_info(id);
}

void _HilbertHotel::_bind_methods() {
        ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("get_bus_info", "r_id"), &_HilbertHotel::get_bus_info);
        ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("create_bus"), &_HilbertHotel::create_bus);
        ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("delete_bus"), &_HilbertHotel::delete_bus);
        ADD_SIGNAL(MethodInfo("occupy_room", PropertyInfo(Variant::INT, "room_number"), PropertyInfo(Variant::_RID, "r_id")));
}

void _HilbertHotel::connect_signals() {
        HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->connect("occupy_room", _HilbertHotel::get_singleton(), "_occupy_room");
}

_HilbertHotel::_HilbertHotel() {
        singleton = this;
}

_HilbertHotel::~_HilbertHotel() {
}

MessageQueue

为了将命令发送到SceneTree中,MessageQueue是线程安全的缓冲区,用于将其他线程的设置和调用方法排队。要对命令进行排队,请获取目标对象RID并使用 push_callpush_set、或 push_notification 执行所需的行为。每当执行 SceneTree::idleSceneTree::iteration 时,都会刷新队列。

总结

这是GDScript示例代码:

extends Node

func _ready():
    print("Start debugging")
    HilbertHotel.connect("occupy_room", self, "_print_occupy_room")
    var rid = HilbertHotel.create_bus()
    OS.delay_msec(2000)
    HilbertHotel.create_bus()
    OS.delay_msec(2000)
    HilbertHotel.create_bus()
    OS.delay_msec(2000)
    print(HilbertHotel.get_bus_info(rid))
    HilbertHotel.delete_bus(rid)
    print("Ready done")

func _print_occupy_room(room_number, r_id):
    print("Room number: "  + str(room_number) + ", RID: " + str(r_id))
    print(HilbertHotel.get_bus_info(r_id))

注意