自定 Godot 伺服器

簡介

Godot 以伺服器來實作多執行緒。伺服器是管理資料、處理資料與推送回處理結果的精靈 (Daemon)。伺服器為引擎與其他模組實作了可解析資源 ID 與處理資料的中介者模式。此外,伺服器也負責聲明其 RID 分配的擁有權。

本指南假設讀者已瞭解如何製作 C++ 模組與 Godot 資料型別。否則,請先參閱 以 C++ 語言自定模組

可以做什麼?

  • 新增人工智慧。

  • 新增自定非同步執行緒。

  • 新增新輸入裝置的支援。

  • 新增寫入執行緒。

  • 新增自定 VoIP 協定。

  • 其他…

建立 Godot 伺服器

伺服器最少需要由一個靜態實體、睡眠計時器、執行緒循環、初始狀態與清理過程。

#ifndef HILBERT_HOTEL_H
#define HILBERT_HOTEL_H

#include "core/list.h"
#include "core/object.h"
#include "core/os/thread.h"
#include "core/os/mutex.h"
#include "core/rid.h"
#include "core/set.h"
#include "core/variant.h"

class HilbertHotel : public Object {
        GDCLASS(HilbertHotel, Object);

        static HilbertHotel *singleton;
        static void thread_func(void *p_udata);

private:
        bool thread_exited;
        mutable bool exit_thread;
        Thread *thread;
        Mutex *mutex;

public:
        static HilbertHotel *get_singleton();
        Error init();
        void lock();
        void unlock();
        void finish();

protected:
        static void _bind_methods();

private:
        uint64_t counter;
        RID_Owner<InfiniteBus> bus_owner;
        // https://github.com/godotengine/godot/blob/3.x/core/rid.h#L196
        Set<RID> buses;
        void _emit_occupy_room(uint64_t room, RID rid);

public:
        RID create_bus();
        Variant get_bus_info(RID id);
        bool empty();
        bool delete_bus(RID id);
        void clear();
        void register_rooms();
        HilbertHotel();
};

#endif
#include "hilbert_hotel.h"

#include "core/dictionary.h"
#include "core/list.h"
#include "core/os/os.h"
#include "core/variant.h"

#include "prime_225.h"

void HilbertHotel::thread_func(void *p_udata) {

        HilbertHotel *ac = (HilbertHotel *) p_udata;
        uint64_t msdelay = 1000;

        while (!ac->exit_thread) {
                if (!ac->empty()) {
                        ac->lock();
                        ac->register_rooms();
                        ac->unlock();
                }
                OS::get_singleton()->delay_usec(msdelay * 1000);
        }
}

Error HilbertHotel::init() {
        thread_exited = false;
        counter = 0;
        mutex = Mutex::create();
        thread = Thread::create(HilbertHotel::thread_func, this);
        return OK;
}

HilbertHotel *HilbertHotel::singleton = NULL;

HilbertHotel *HilbertHotel::get_singleton() {
        return singleton;
}

void HilbertHotel::register_rooms() {
        for (Set<RID>::Element *e = buses.front(); e; e = e->next()) {
                auto bus = bus_owner.getornull(e->get());

                if (bus) {
                        uint64_t room = bus->next_room();
                        _emit_occupy_room(room, bus->get_self());
                }
        }
}

void HilbertHotel::unlock() {
        if (!thread || !mutex) {
                return;
        }

        mutex->unlock();
}

void HilbertHotel::lock() {
        if (!thread || !mutex) {
                return;
        }

        mutex->lock();
}

void HilbertHotel::_emit_occupy_room(uint64_t room, RID rid) {
        _HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->_occupy_room(room, rid);
}

Variant HilbertHotel::get_bus_info(RID id) {
        InfiniteBus *)bus = bus_owner.getornull(id);

        if (bus) {
                Dictionary d;
                d["prime"] = bus->get_bus_num();
                d["current_room"] = bus->get_current_room();
                return d;
        }

        return Variant();
}

void HilbertHotel::finish() {
        if (!thread) {
                return;
        }

        exit_thread = true;
        Thread::wait_to_finish(thread);

        memdelete(thread);

        if (mutex) {
                memdelete(mutex);
        }

        thread = NULL;
}

RID HilbertHotel::create_bus() {
        lock();
        InfiniteBus *ptr = memnew(InfiniteBus(PRIME[counter++]));
        RID ret = bus_owner.make_rid(ptr);
        ptr->set_self(ret);
        buses.insert(ret);
        unlock();

        return ret;
}

// https://github.com/godotengine/godot/blob/3.x/core/rid.h#L187
bool HilbertHotel::delete_bus(RID id) {
        if (bus_owner.owns(id)) {
                lock();
                InfiniteBus *b = bus_owner.get(id);
                bus_owner.free(id);
                buses.erase(id);
                memdelete(b);
                unlock();
                return true;
        }

        return false;
}

void HilbertHotel::clear() {
        for (Set<RID>::Element *e = buses.front(); e; e = e->next()) {
                delete_bus(e->get());
        }
}

bool HilbertHotel::empty() {
        return buses.size() <= 0;
}

void HilbertHotel::_bind_methods() {
}

HilbertHotel::HilbertHotel() {
        singleton = this;
}
/* prime_225.h */

#include "core/int_types.h"

const uint64_t PRIME[225] = {
                2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,
                29,31,37,41,43,47,53,59,61,
                67,71,73,79,83,89,97,101,103,
                107,109,113,127,131,137,139,149,151,
                157,163,167,173,179,181,191,193,197,
                199,211,223,227,229,233,239,241,251,
                257,263,269,271,277,281,283,293,307,
                311,313,317,331,337,347,349,353,359,
                367,373,379,383,389,397,401,409,419,
                421,431,433,439,443,449,457,461,463,
                467,479,487,491,499,503,509,521,523,
                541,547,557,563,569,571,577,587,593,
                599,601,607,613,617,619,631,641,643,
                647,653,659,661,673,677,683,691,701,
                709,719,727,733,739,743,751,757,761,
                769,773,787,797,809,811,821,823,827,
                829,839,853,857,859,863,877,881,883,
                887,907,911,919,929,937,941,947,953,
                967,971,977,983,991,997,1009,1013,1019,
                1021,1031,1033,1039,1049,1051,1061,1063,1069,
                1087,1091,1093,1097,1103,1109,1117,1123,1129,
                1151,1153,1163,1171,1181,1187,1193,1201,1213,
                1217,1223,1229,1231,1237,1249,1259,1277,1279,
                1283,1289,1291,1297,1301,1303,1307,1319,1321,
                1327,1361,1367,1373,1381,1399,1409,1423,1427
};

自定受管理的資源資料

Godot 的伺服器實作了中介者模式。所有自 RID_Data.``RID_Owner<MyRID_Data>`` 繼承來的資料型別在被呼叫 make_rid 時都擁有該物件。而在除錯模式時,RID_Owner 會維護一組由 RID 組成的列表。實務上來說,RID 與撰寫物件導向的 C 語言程式類似。

class InfiniteBus : public RID_Data {
        RID self;

private:
        uint64_t prime_num;
        uint64_t num;

public:
        uint64_t next_room() {
                return prime_num * num++;
        }

        uint64_t get_bus_num() const {
                return prime_num;
        }

        uint64_t get_current_room() const {
                return prime_num * num;
        }

        _FORCE_INLINE_ void set_self(const RID &p_self) {
                self = p_self;
        }

        _FORCE_INLINE_ RID get_self() const {
                return self;
        }

        InfiniteBus(uint64_t prime) : prime_num(prime), num(1) {};
        ~InfiniteBus() {};
}

參照

在 GDScript 中註冊該類別

伺服器被分配在 register_types.cpp 中。建構函式會設定靜態實體,而 init() 則會建立受管理的執行緒。 unregister_types.cpp 會清理伺服器。

由於 Godot 的伺服器會建立實體並將這個實體繫結到靜態單例上,繫結該類別可能不會被參照到正確的實體上。因此,必須要先建立一個虛擬的 (Dummy) 類別來參照到正確的 Godot 伺服器上。

register_server_types() 中,使用 Engine::get_singleton()->add_singleton 來在 GDScript 註冊該虛擬類別。

/* register_types.cpp */

#include "register_types.h"

#include "core/class_db.h"
#include "core/engine.h"

#include "hilbert_hotel.h"

static HilbertHotel *hilbert_hotel = NULL;
static _HilbertHotel *_hilbert_hotel = NULL;

void register_hilbert_hotel_types() {
        hilbert_hotel = memnew(HilbertHotel);
        hilbert_hotel->init();
        _hilbert_hotel = memnew(_HilbertHotel);
        ClassDB::register_class<_HilbertHotel>();
        Engine::get_singleton()->add_singleton(Engine::Singleton("HilbertHotel", _HilbertHotel::get_singleton()));
}

void unregister_hilbert_hotel_types() {
        if (hilbert_hotel) {
                hilbert_hotel->finish();
                memdelete(hilbert_hotel);
        }

        if (_hilbert_hotel) {
                memdelete(_hilbert_hotel);
        }
}
/* register_types.h */

/* Yes, the word in the middle must be the same as the module folder name */
void register_hilbert_hotel_types();
void unregister_hilbert_hotel_types();

繫結方法

該虛擬類別會將單例方法繫結到 GDScript 上。在大多數情況下,該單例類別方法會被封裝在內。

Variant _HilbertHotel::get_bus_info(RID id) {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->get_bus_info(id);
}

繫結訊號

可以通過呼叫 GDScript 虛擬物件來將訊號發送到 GDScript。

void HilbertHotel::_emit_occupy_room(uint64_t room, RID rid) {
        _HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->_occupy_room(room, rid);
}
class _HilbertHotel : public Object {
        GDCLASS(_HilbertHotel, Object);

        friend class HilbertHotel;
        static _HilbertHotel *singleton;

protected:
        static void _bind_methods();

private:
        void _occupy_room(int room_number, RID bus);

public:
        RID create_bus();
        void connect_signals();
        bool delete_bus(RID id);
        static _HilbertHotel *get_singleton();
        Variant get_bus_info(RID id);

        _HilbertHotel();
        ~_HilbertHotel();
};

#endif
_HilbertHotel *_HilbertHotel::singleton = NULL;
_HilbertHotel *_HilbertHotel::get_singleton() { return singleton; }

RID _HilbertHotel::create_bus() {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->create_bus();
}

bool _HilbertHotel::delete_bus(RID rid) {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->delete_bus(rid);
}

void _HilbertHotel::_occupy_room(int room_number, RID bus) {
        emit_signal("occupy_room", room_number, bus);
}

Variant _HilbertHotel::get_bus_info(RID id) {
        return HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->get_bus_info(id);
}

void _HilbertHotel::_bind_methods() {
        ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("get_bus_info", "r_id"), &_HilbertHotel::get_bus_info);
        ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("create_bus"), &_HilbertHotel::create_bus);
        ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("delete_bus"), &_HilbertHotel::delete_bus);
        ADD_SIGNAL(MethodInfo("occupy_room", PropertyInfo(Variant::INT, "room_number"), PropertyInfo(Variant::_RID, "r_id")));
}

void _HilbertHotel::connect_signals() {
        HilbertHotel::get_singleton()->connect("occupy_room", _HilbertHotel::get_singleton(), "_occupy_room");
}

_HilbertHotel::_HilbertHotel() {
        singleton = this;
}

_HilbertHotel::~_HilbertHotel() {
}

MessageQueue

若要傳送指令給 SceneTree,則 MessageQueue 時能設定與呼叫函式並佇列到其他執行緒中的一個執行緒安全的緩衝區。要將指令放進佇列,請先取得目標物件的 RID,然後使用 push_call, push_setpush_notification 其中一個方法來執行所需的行為。佇列會在 SceneTree::idleSceneTree::iteration 被執行時被清空。

參考資料:

總結

下列為 GDScript 範例程式碼:

extends Node

func _ready():
    print("Start debugging")
    HilbertHotel.connect("occupy_room", self, "_print_occupy_room")
    var rid = HilbertHotel.create_bus()
    OS.delay_msec(2000)
    HilbertHotel.create_bus()
    OS.delay_msec(2000)
    HilbertHotel.create_bus()
    OS.delay_msec(2000)
    print(HilbertHotel.get_bus_info(rid))
    HilbertHotel.delete_bus(rid)
    print("Ready done")

func _print_occupy_room(room_number, r_id):
    print("Room number: "  + str(room_number) + ", RID: " + str(r_id))
    print(HilbertHotel.get_bus_info(r_id))

請注意

  • 實際上的 希伯特旅館 (Hilbert Hotel) <https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E5%B8%8C%E5%B0%94%E4%BC%AF%E7%89%B9%E6%97%85%E9%A6%86%E6%82%96%E8%AE%BA> 是不可能達成的。

  • 連結訊號的範例程式碼非常邪門。