@GDScript

Category: Core

Brief Description

Built-in GDScript functions.

Member Functions

Color Color8 ( int r8, int g8, int b8, int a8 )
Color ColorN ( String name, float alpha )
float abs ( float s )
float acos ( float s )
float asin ( float s )
void assert ( bool condition )
float atan ( float s )
float atan2 ( float x, float y )
Variant bytes2var ( PoolByteArray bytes )
float ceil ( float s )
String char ( int ascii )
float clamp ( float val, float min, float max )
Object convert ( Variant what, int type )
float cos ( float s )
float cosh ( float s )
float db2linear ( float db )
float decimals ( float step )
float dectime ( float value, float amount, float step )
float deg2rad ( float deg )
Object dict2inst ( Dictionary dict )
float ease ( float s, float curve )
float exp ( float s )
float floor ( float s )
float fmod ( float x, float y )
float fposmod ( float x, float y )
Object funcref ( Object instance, String funcname )
int hash ( Variant var )
Dictionary inst2dict ( Object inst )
Object instance_from_id ( int instance_id )
float inverse_lerp ( float from, float to, float value )
bool is_inf ( float s )
bool is_nan ( float s )
int len ( Variant var )
float lerp ( float from, float to, float weight )
float linear2db ( float nrg )
Object load ( String path )
float log ( float s )
float max ( float a, float b )
float min ( float a, float b )
int nearest_po2 ( int val )
Variant parse_json ( String json )
float pow ( float x, float y )
Resource preload ( String path )
void print ( ) vararg
void print_stack ( )
void printerr ( ) vararg
void printraw ( ) vararg
void prints ( ) vararg
void printt ( ) vararg
float rad2deg ( float rad )
float rand_range ( float from, float to )
Array rand_seed ( int seed )
float randf ( )
int randi ( )
void randomize ( )
Array range ( ) vararg
float range_lerp ( float value, float istart, float istop, float ostart, float ostop )
float round ( float s )
void seed ( int seed )
float sign ( float s )
float sin ( float s )
float sinh ( float s )
float sqrt ( float s )
float stepify ( float s, float step )
String str ( ) vararg
Variant str2var ( String string )
float tan ( float s )
float tanh ( float s )
String to_json ( Variant var )
bool type_exists ( String type )
int typeof ( Variant what )
String validate_json ( String json )
PoolByteArray var2bytes ( Variant var )
String var2str ( Variant var )
Object weakref ( Object obj )
float wrapf ( float value, float min, float max )
int wrapi ( int value, int min, int max )
GDFunctionState yield ( Object object, String signal )

Numeric Constants

  • PI = 3.141593 — Constant that represents how many times the diameter of a circle fits around its perimeter.
  • TAU = 6.283185 — The circle constant, the circumference of the unit circle.
  • INF = inf — A positive infinity. (For negative infinity, use -INF).
  • NAN = nan — Macro constant that expands to an expression of type float that represents a NaN.

The NaN values are used to identify undefined or non-representable values for floating-point elements, such as the square root of negative numbers or the result of 0/0.

Description

This contains the list of built-in gdscript functions. Mostly math functions and other utilities. Everything else is expanded by objects.

Member Function Description

Returns a 32 bit color with red, green, blue and alpha channels. Each channel has 8 bits of information ranging from 0 to 255.

r8 red channel

g8 green channel

b8 blue channel

a8 alpha channel

red = Color8(255, 0, 0)

Returns color name with alpha ranging from 0 to 1. Note: name is defined in color_names.inc.

red = ColorN('red')

Returns the absolute value of parameter s (i.e. unsigned value, works for integer and float).

# a is 1
a = abs(-1)

Returns the arc cosine of s in radians. Use to get the angle of cosine s.

# c is 0.523599 or 30 degrees if converted with rad2deg(s)
c = acos(0.866025)

Returns the arc sine of s in radians. Use to get the angle of sine s.

# s is 0.523599 or 30 degrees if converted with rad2deg(s)
s = asin(0.5)
  • void assert ( bool condition )

Assert that the condition is true. If the condition is false a fatal error is generated and the program is halted. Useful for debugging to make sure a value is always true.

# Speed should always be between 0 and 20
speed = -10
assert(speed < 20) # Is true and program continues
assert(speed >= 0) # Is false and program stops
assert(speed >= 0 && speed < 20) # Or combined

Returns the arc tangent of s in radians. Use it to get the angle from an angle’s tangent in trigonometry: atan(tan(angle)) == angle.

The method cannot know in which quadrant the angle should fall. See atan2 if you always want an exact angle.

a = atan(0.5) # a is 0.463648

Returns the arc tangent of y/x in radians. Use to get the angle of tangent y/x. To compute the value, the method takes into account the sign of both arguments in order to determine the quadrant.

a = atan(0,-1) # a is 3.141593

Decodes a byte array back to a value.

Rounds s upward, returning the smallest integral value that is not less than s.

i = ceil(1.45)  # i is 2
i = ceil(1.001) # i is 2

Returns a character as a String of the given ASCII code.

# a is 'A'
a = char(65)
# a is 'a'
a = char(65+32)

Clamps val and returns a value not less than min and not more than max.

speed = 1000
# a is 20
a = clamp(speed, 1, 20)

speed = -10
# a is 1
a = clamp(speed, 1, 20)

Converts from a type to another in the best way possible. The type parameter uses the enum TYPE_* in @Global Scope.

a = Vector2(1, 0)
# prints 1
print(a.length())
a = convert(a, TYPE_STRING)
# prints 6
# (1, 0) is 6 characters
print(a.length())

Returns the cosine of angle s in radians.

# prints 1 and -1
print(cos(PI\*2))
print(cos(PI))

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of s in radians.

# prints 1.543081
print(cosh(1))

Converts from decibels to linear energy (audio).

Returns the position of the first non-zero digit, after the decimal point.

# n is 2
n = decimals(0.035)

Returns the result of value decreased by step * amount.

# a = 59
a = dectime(60, 10, 0.1))

Returns degrees converted to radians.

# r is 3.141593
r = deg2rad(180)

Converts a previously converted instance to a dictionary, back into an instance. Useful for deserializing.

Easing function, based on exponent. 0 is constant, 1 is linear, 0 to 1 is ease-in, 1+ is ease out. Negative values are in-out/out in.

Raises the Euler’s constant e to the power of s and returns it. e has an approximate value of 2.71828.

a = exp(2) # approximately 7.39

Rounds s to the closest smaller integer and returns it.

# a is 2
a = floor(2.99)
# a is -3
a = floor(-2.99)

Returns the floating-point remainder of x/y.

# remainder is 1.5
var remainder = fmod(7, 5.5)

Returns the floating-point remainder of x/y that wraps equally in positive and negative.

var i = -10;
while i < 0:
    prints(i, fposmod(i, 10))
    i += 1

Produces:

-10 10
-9 1
-8 2
-7 3
-6 4
-5 5
-4 6
-3 7
-2 8
-1 9

Returns a reference to the specified function funcname in the instance node. As functions aren’t first-class objects in GDscript, use funcref to store a FuncRef in a variable and call it later.

func foo():
    return("bar")

a = funcref(self, "foo")
print(a.call_func()) # prints bar

Returns the integer hash of the variable passed.

print(hash("a")) # prints 177670

Returns the passed instance converted to a dictionary (useful for serializing).

var foo = "bar"
func _ready():
    var d = inst2dict(self)
    print(d.keys())
    print(d.values())

Prints out:

[@subpath, @path, foo]
[, res://test.gd, bar]
  • Object instance_from_id ( int instance_id )

Returns the Object that corresponds to instance_id. All Objects have a unique instance ID.

var foo = "bar"
func _ready():
    var id = get_instance_id()
    var inst = instance_from_id(id)
    print(inst.foo) # prints bar

Returns a normalized value considering the given range.

inverse_lerp(3, 5, 4) # returns 0.5

Returns True/False whether s is an infinity value (either positive infinity or negative infinity).

Returns True/False whether s is a NaN (Not-A-Number) value.

Returns length of Variant var. Length is the character count of String, element count of Array, size of Dictionary, etc. Note: Generates a fatal error if Variant can not provide a length.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4]
len(a) # returns 4

Linearly interpolates between two values by a normalized value.

lerp(1, 3, 0.5) # returns 2

Converts from linear energy to decibels (audio).

Loads a resource from the filesystem located at ‘path’. Note: resource paths can be obtained by right clicking on a resource in the Assets Panel and choosing “Copy Path”.

# load a scene called main located in the root of the project directory
var main = load("res://main.tscn")

Natural logarithm. The amount of time needed to reach a certain level of continuous growth. Note: This is not the same as the log function on your calculator which is a base 10 logarithm.

log(10) # returns 2.302585

Returns the maximum of two values.

max(1,2) # returns 2
max(-3.99, -4) # returns -3.99

Returns the minimum of two values.

min(1,2) # returns 1
min(-3.99, -4) # returns -4

Returns the nearest larger power of 2 for integer val.

nearest_po2(3) # returns 4
nearest_po2(4) # returns 4
nearest_po2(5) # returns 8

Parse JSON text to a Variant (use typeof to check if it is what you expect).

Be aware that the JSON specification does not define integer or float types, but only a number type. Therefore, parsing a JSON text will convert all numerical values to float types.

p = parse_json('["a", "b", "c"]')
if typeof(p) == TYPE_ARRAY:
    print(p[0]) # prints a
else:
    print("unexpected results")

Returns the result of x raised to the power of y.

pow(2,5) # returns 32

Returns a resource from the filesystem that is loaded during script parsing. Note: resource paths can be obtained by right clicking on a resource in the Assets Panel and choosing “Copy Path”.

# load a scene called main located in the root of the project directory
var main = preload("res://main.tscn")
  • void print ( ) vararg

Converts one or more arguments to strings in the best way possible and prints them to the console.

a = [1,2,3]
print("a","b",a) # prints ab[1, 2, 3]
  • void print_stack ( )

Prints a stack track at code location, only works when running with debugger turned on.

Output in the console would look something like this:

Frame 0 - res://test.gd:16 in function '_process'
  • void printerr ( ) vararg

Prints one or more arguments to strings in the best way possible to standard error line.

printerr("prints to stderr")
  • void printraw ( ) vararg

Prints one or more arguments to strings in the best way possible to console. No newline is added at the end.

printraw("A")
printraw("B")
# prints AB
  • void prints ( ) vararg

Prints one or more arguments to the console with a space between each argument.

prints("A", "B", "C") # prints A B C
  • void printt ( ) vararg

Prints one or more arguments to the console with a tab between each argument.

printt("A", "B", "C") # prints A       B       C

Converts from radians to degrees.

rad2deg(0.523599) # returns 30

Random range, any floating point value between from and to.

prints(rand_range(0, 1), rand_range(0, 1)) # prints 0.135591 0.405263

Random from seed: pass a seed, and an array with both number and new seed is returned. “Seed” here refers to the internal state of the pseudo random number generator. The internal state of the current implementation is 64 bits.

Returns a random floating point value between 0 and 1.

randf() # returns 0.375671
  • int randi ( )

Returns a random 32 bit integer. Use remainder to obtain a random value between 0 and N (where N is smaller than 2^32 -1).

randi() % 20      # returns random number between 0 and 19
randi() % 100     # returns random number between 0 and 99
randi() % 100 + 1 # returns random number between 1 and 100
  • void randomize ( )

Randomizes the seed (or the internal state) of the random number generator. Current implementation reseeds using a number based on time.

func _ready():
    randomize()

Returns an array with the given range. Range can be 1 argument N (0 to N-1), two arguments (initial, final-1) or three arguments (initial, final-1, increment).

for i in range(4):
    print(i)
for i in range(2, 5):
    print(i)
for i in range(0, 6, 2):
    print(i)

Output:

0
1
2
3

2
3
4

0
2
4

Maps a value from range [istart, istop] to [ostart, ostop].

range_lerp(75, 0, 100, -1, 1) # returns 0.5

Returns the integral value that is nearest to s, with halfway cases rounded away from zero.

round(2.6) # returns 3
  • void seed ( int seed )

Sets seed for the random number generator.

my_seed = "Godot Rocks"
seed(my_seed.hash())

Returns sign of s -1 or 1.

sign(-6) # returns -1
sign(6)  # returns 1

Returns the sine of angle s in radians.

sin(0.523599) # returns 0.5

Returns the hyperbolic sine of s.

a = log(2.0) # returns 0.693147
sinh(a) # returns 0.75

Returns the square root of s.

sqrt(9) # returns 3

Snaps float value s to a given step.

Converts one or more arguments to string in the best way possible.

var a = [10, 20, 30]
var b = str(a);
len(a) # returns 3
len(b) # returns 12

Converts a formatted string that was returned by var2str to the original value.

a = '{ "a": 1, "b": 2 }'
b = str2var(a)
print(b['a']) # prints 1

Returns the tangent of angle s in radians.

tan( deg2rad(45) ) # returns 1

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of s.

a = log(2.0) # returns 0.693147
tanh(a)      # returns 0.6

Converts a Variant var to JSON text and return the result. Useful for serializing data to store or send over the network.

a = { 'a': 1, 'b': 2 }
b = to_json(a)
print(b) # {"a":1, "b":2}

Returns whether the given class exists in ClassDB.

type_exists("Sprite") # returns true
type_exists("Variant") # returns false

Returns the internal type of the given Variant object, using the TYPE_* enum in @Global Scope.

p = parse_json('["a", "b", "c"]')
if typeof(p) == TYPE_ARRAY:
    print(p[0]) # prints a
else:
    print("unexpected results")

Checks that json is valid JSON data. Returns empty string if valid. Returns error message if not valid.

j = to_json([1, 2, 3])
v = validate_json(j)
if not v:
    print("valid")
else:
    prints("invalid", v)

Encodes a variable value to a byte array.

Converts a Variant var to a formatted string that can later be parsed using str2var.

a = { 'a': 1, 'b': 2 }
print(var2str(a))

prints

{
"a": 1,
"b": 2
}

Returns a weak reference to an object.

A weak reference to an object is not enough to keep the object alive: when the only remaining references to a referent are weak references, garbage collection is free to destroy the referent and reuse its memory for something else. However, until the object is actually destroyed the weak reference may return the object even if there are no strong references to it.

Wraps float value between min and max.

Usable for creating loop-alike behavior or infinite surfaces.

# a is 0.5
a = wrapf(10.5, 0.0, 10.0)
# a is 9.5
a = wrapf(-0.5, 0.0, 10.0)
# infinite loop between 0.0 and 0.99
f = wrapf(f + 0.1, 0.0, 1.0)

Wraps integer value between min and max.

Usable for creating loop-alike behavior or infinite surfaces.

# a is 0
a = wrapi(10, 0, 10)
# a is 9
a = wrapi(-1, 0, 10)
# infinite loop between 0 and 9
frame = wrapi(frame + 1, 0, 10)

Stops the function execution and returns the current state. Call GDFunctionState.resume on the state to resume execution. This invalidates the state.

Returns anything that was passed to the resume function call. If passed an object and a signal, the execution is resumed when the object’s signal is emitted.