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Importing 3D scenes¶
Godot scene importer¶
When dealing with 3D assets, Godot has a flexible and configurable importer.
Godot works with scenes. This means that the entire scene being worked on in your favorite 3D modeling software will be transferred as close as possible.
Godot supports the following 3D scene file formats:
glTF 2.0 (recommended). Godot has full support for both text (
.gltf) and binary (
.blend(Blender). This works by calling Blender to export to glTF in a transparent manner (requires Blender to be installed).
DAE (COLLADA), an older format that is fully supported.
OBJ (Wavefront) format + their MTL material files. This is also fully supported, but pretty limited given the format's limitations (no support for pivots, skeletons, animations, UV2, PBR materials, ...).
FBX, supported via FBX2glTF integration. This requires installing an external program that links against the proprietary FBX SDK, so we recommend using other formats listed above (if suitable for your workflow).
Copy the scene file together with the textures and mesh data (if separate) to the project repository, then Godot will do a full import when focusing the editor window.
3D asset direction conventions¶
Godot uses a right-handed, Y-is-up coordinate system, with the -Z axis as the camera's forward direction. This is the same as OpenGL. This implies that +Z is back, +X is right, and -X is left for a camera.
The convention for 3D assets is to face the opposite direction as the camera, so that characters and other assets are facing the camera by default. This convention is extremely common in 3D modeling applications, and is codified in glTF as part of the glTF 2.0 specification. This means that for oriented 3D assets (such as characters), the +Z axis is the direction of the front, so -Z is the rear, +X is the left side, and -X is the right side for a 3D asset. In Blender, this means that +Y is rear and -Y is front for an asset.
When rotating an oriented 3D asset in Godot, use the
option on the
look_at functions, and use the
constants to perform calculations in the oriented asset's local space.
For assets without an intrinsic front side or forward direction, such as a game map or terrain, take note of the cardinal directions instead. The convention in Godot and the vast majority of other applications is that +X is east and -X is west. Due to Godot's right-handed Y-is-up coordinate system, this implies that +Z is south and -Z is north. In Blender, this means that +Y is north and -Y is south.
Exporting glTF 2.0 files from Blender (recommended)¶
There are 3 ways to export glTF files from Blender:
As a glTF binary file (
As a glTF text-based file with embedded binary data (
As a glTF text-based file with separate binary data and textures (
.binfile + textures).
glTF binary files (
.glb) are the smallest of the three options. They include
the mesh and textures set up in Blender. When brought into Godot the textures
are part of the object's material file.
glTF embedded files (
.gltf) function the same way as binary files. They
don't provide extra functionality in Godot, and shouldn't be used since they
have a larger file size.
There are two reasons to use glTF with the textures separate. One is to have the scene description in a text based format and the binary data in a separate binary file. This can be useful for version control if you want to review changes in a text-based format. The second is you need the texture files separate from the material file. If you don't need either of those, glTF binary files are fine.
If your model contains blend shapes (also known as "shape keys" and "morph targets"), your glTF export setting Export Deformation Bones Only needs to be configured to Enabled under the Animation export configurations.
Exporting non-deforming bones anyway will lead to incorrect shading.
Blender versions older than 3.2 do not export emissive textures with the glTF file. If your model uses one and you're using an older version of Blender, it must be brought in separately.
By default, Blender has backface culling disabled on materials and will export materials to match how they render in Blender. This means that materials in Godot will have their cull mode set to Disabled. This can decrease performance since backfaces will be rendered, even when they are being culled by other faces. To resolve this, enable Backface Culling in Blender's Materials tab, then export the scene to glTF again.
.blend files directly within Godot¶
This functionality requires Blender 3.0 or later. For best results, we recommend using Blender 3.5 or later, as it includes many fixes to the glTF exporter.
It is strongly recommended to use an official Blender release downloaded from blender.org, as opposed to a Linux distribution package or Flatpak. This avoids any issues related to packaging, such as different library versions that can cause incompatibilities or sandboxing restrictions.
From Godot 4.0 onwards, the editor can directly import
.blend files by
calling Blender's glTF export functionality in a
This allows you to iterate on your 3D scenes faster, as you can save the scene in Blender, alt-tab back to Godot then see your changes immediately. When working with version control, this is also more efficient as you no longer need to commit a copy of the exported glTF file to version control.
.blend import, you must install Blender before opening the Godot
editor (if opening a project that already contains
.blend files). If you
keep Blender installed at its default location, Godot should be able to detect
its path automatically. If this isn't the case, configure the path to the
directory containing the Blender executable in the Editor Settings
(Filesystem > Import > Blender > Blender 3 Path).
If you keep
.blend files within your project folder but don't want them to
be imported by Godot, disable Filesystem > Import > Blender > Enabled in the
advanced Project Settings.
When working in a team, keep in mind using
.blend files in your project
will require all team members to have Blender installed. While Blender is
a free download, this may add friction when working on the project.
.blend import is also not available on the Android and web editors, as
these platforms can't call external programs.
If this is problematic, consider using glTF scenes exported from Blender instead.
Exporting DAE files from Blender¶
Blender has built-in COLLADA support, but it does not work properly for the needs of game engines and shouldn't be used as-is. However, scenes exported with the built-in Collada support may still work for simple scenes without animation.
For complex scenes or scenes that contain animations, Godot provides a Blender plugin that will correctly export COLLADA scenes for use in Godot.
Importing OBJ files in Godot¶
OBJ is one of the simplest 3D formats out there, so Godot should be able to import most OBJ files successfully. However, OBJ is also a very limited format: it doesn't support skinning, animation, UV2 or PBR materials.
There are 2 ways to use OBJ meshes in Godot:
Load them directly in a MeshInstance3D node, or any other property that expects as mesh (such as GPUParticles3D). This is the default mode.
Change their import mode to OBJ as Scene in the Import dock then restart the editor. This allows you to use the same import options as glTF or Collada scenes, such as unwrapping UV2 on import (for Using Lightmap global illumination).
Blender 3.4 and later can export RGB vertex colors in OBJ files (this is a nonstandard extension of the OBJ format). Godot is able to import those vertex colors since Godot 4.0, but they will not be displayed on the material unless you enable Vertex Color > Use As Albedo on the material.
Vertex colors from OBJ meshes keep their original color space once imported (sRGB/linear), but their brightness is clamped to 1.0 (they can't be overbright).
Importing FBX files in Godot¶
When opening a project containing FBX scenes, you will see a dialog asking you to configure FBX import. Click the link in the dialog to download a fbx2gltf binary, then extract the ZIP archive, place the binary anywhere you wish, then specify its path in the dialog.
If you keep
.fbx files within your project folder but don't want them to
be imported by Godot, disable Filesystem > Import > FBX > Enabled in the
advanced Project Settings.
The full installation process for using FBX in Godot is described on the FBX import page of the Godot website.
Exporting textures separately¶
While textures can be exported with a model in certain file formats, such as glT