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制作插件

关于插件

插件是用有用的工具来扩展编辑器的一个好方法. 它可以完全用GDScript和标准场景制作, 甚至不需要重新加载编辑器. 与模块不同, 你不需要创建C++代码也不需要重新编译引擎. 虽然这使得插件的功能不那么强大, 但你仍然可以用它们做很多事情. 请注意, 一个插件与你已经可以制作的任何场景相似, 只是它是用脚本创建的, 以增加编辑器功能.

This tutorial will guide you through the creation of two plugins so you can understand how they work and be able to develop your own. The first is a custom node that you can add to any scene in the project, and the other is a custom dock added to the editor.

创建插件

在开始前, 先找个地方创建个空项目. 这个空项目是制作和测试我们插件的基础.

编辑器要识别一个新的插件, 首先需要创建两个文件: 一个是 plugin.cfg 用于配置和具有此功能的工具脚本. 插件在项目文件夹里面有一个标准路径, 比如 addons/plugin_name.Godot提供了一个属性框, 用于生成这些文件并将它们放在需要的位置.

In the main toolbar, click the Project dropdown. Then click Project Settings.... Go to the Plugins tab and then click on the Create New Plugin button in the top-right.

你会看到出现了一个对话框,类似这样:

../../../_images/making_plugins-create_plugin_dialog.webp

每个字段中文本属性都描述了它会影响到哪些配置文件的值.

如果要继续使用该例子,请使用下列的值:

Plugin Name: My Custom Node
Subfolder: my_custom_node
Description: A custom node made to extend the Godot Engine.
Author: Your Name Here
Version: 1.0.0
Language: GDScript
Script Name: custom_node.gd
Activate now: No

警告

始终需要在 C# 中去掉对 立即激活? 选项的勾选,因为和其他 C# 脚本一样,EditorPlugin 脚本是需要编译的,要求构建整个项目。构建项目后,就可以在 项目设置插件 选项卡中启用该插件。

你最终的目录结构应该是这样显示的:

../../../_images/making_plugins-my_custom_mode_folder.webp

plugin.cfg is an INI file with metadata about your plugin. The name and description help people understand what it does. Your name helps you get properly credited for your work. The version number helps others know if they have an outdated version; if you are unsure on how to come up with the version number, check out Semantic Versioning. The main script file will instruct Godot what your plugin does in the editor once it is active.

脚本文件

Upon creation of the plugin, the dialog will automatically open the EditorPlugin script for you. The script has two requirements that you cannot change: it must be a @tool script, or else it will not load properly in the editor, and it must inherit from EditorPlugin.

警告

In addition to the EditorPlugin script, any other GDScript that your plugin uses must also be a tool. Any GDScript without @tool imported into the editor will act like an empty file!

It's important to deal with initialization and clean-up of resources. A good practice is to use the virtual function _enter_tree() to initialize your plugin and _exit_tree() to clean it up. Thankfully, the dialog generates these callbacks for you. Your script should look something like this:

@tool
extends EditorPlugin


func _enter_tree():
    # Initialization of the plugin goes here.
    pass


func _exit_tree():
    # Clean-up of the plugin goes here.
    pass

这是创建新插件时使用的好模板.

自定义节点

有时你希望在许多节点中存在某种行为, 例如可以重复使用的自定义场景或控件. 实例化在很多情况下都很有用, 但有时它会很麻烦, 特别是如果你在许多项目中使用它. 一个很好的解决方案是创建一个插件, 添加一个具有自定义行为的节点.

警告

通过 EditorPlugin 添加的节点是“CustomType”(自定义类型)节点。虽然它们可以用于任何脚本语言,但功能比 Script 类系统少。如果你正在编写 GDScript 或 NativeScript,建议使用 Script 类代替。

To create a new node type, you can use the function add_custom_type() from the EditorPlugin class. This function can add new types to the editor (nodes or resources). However, before you can create the type, you need a script that will act as the logic for the type. While that script doesn't have to use the @tool annotation, it can be added so the script runs in the editor.

For this tutorial, we'll create a button that prints a message when clicked. For that, we'll need a script that extends from Button. It could also extend BaseButton if you prefer:

@tool
extends Button


func _enter_tree():
    pressed.connect(clicked)


func clicked():
    print("You clicked me!")

That's it for our basic button. You can save this as my_button.gd inside the plugin folder. You'll also need a 16×16 icon to show in the scene tree. If you don't have one, you can grab the default one from the engine and save it in your addons/my_custom_node folder as icon.png, or use the default Godot logo (preload("res://icon.svg")).

小技巧

SVG images that are used as custom node icons should have the Editor > Scale With Editor Scale and Editor > Convert Icons With Editor Theme import options enabled. This allows icons to follow the editor's scale and theming settings if the icons are designed with the same color palette as Godot's own icons.

../../../_images/making_plugins-custom_node_icon.png

现在,我们需要把它作为一个自定义类型添加,以便它显示在新建 Node 的对话框中。为此,将 custom_node.gd 脚本改为以下内容:

@tool
extends EditorPlugin


func _enter_tree():
    # Initialization of the plugin goes here.
    # Add the new type with a name, a parent type, a script and an icon.
    add_custom_type("MyButton", "Button", preload("my_button.gd"), preload("icon.png"))


func _exit_tree():
    # Clean-up of the plugin goes here.
    # Always remember to remove it from the engine when deactivated.
    remove_custom_type("MyButton")