Vector3

Vector used for 3D math using floating point coordinates.

Description

3-element structure that can be used to represent positions in 3D space or any other triplet of numeric values.

It uses floating-point coordinates. See Vector3i for its integer counterpart.

Note: In a boolean context, a Vector3 will evaluate to false if it's equal to Vector3(0, 0, 0). Otherwise, a Vector3 will always evaluate to true.

Tutorials

Properties

float

x

0.0

float

y

0.0

float

z

0.0

Constructors

Vector3

Vector3 ( )

Vector3

Vector3 ( Vector3 from )

Vector3

Vector3 ( Vector3i from )

Vector3

Vector3 ( float x, float y, float z )

Methods

Vector3

abs ( ) const

float

angle_to ( Vector3 to ) const

Vector3

bounce ( Vector3 n ) const

Vector3

ceil ( ) const

Vector3

clamp ( Vector3 min, Vector3 max ) const

Vector3

cross ( Vector3 with ) const

Vector3

cubic_interpolate ( Vector3 b, Vector3 pre_a, Vector3 post_b, float weight ) const

Vector3

direction_to ( Vector3 to ) const

float

distance_squared_to ( Vector3 to ) const

float

distance_to ( Vector3 to ) const

float

dot ( Vector3 with ) const

Vector3

floor ( ) const

Vector3

inverse ( ) const

bool

is_equal_approx ( Vector3 to ) const

bool

is_normalized ( ) const

float

length ( ) const

float

length_squared ( ) const

Vector3

lerp ( Vector3 to, float weight ) const

Vector3

limit_length ( float length=1.0 ) const

int

max_axis_index ( ) const

int

min_axis_index ( ) const

Vector3

move_toward ( Vector3 to, float delta ) const

Vector3

normalized ( ) const

Vector3

octahedron_decode ( Vector2 uv ) static

Vector2

octahedron_encode ( ) const

Basis

outer ( Vector3 with ) const

Vector3

posmod ( float mod ) const

Vector3

posmodv ( Vector3 modv ) const

Vector3

project ( Vector3 b ) const

Vector3

reflect ( Vector3 n ) const

Vector3

rotated ( Vector3 axis, float angle ) const

Vector3

round ( ) const

Vector3

sign ( ) const

float

signed_angle_to ( Vector3 to, Vector3 axis ) const

Vector3

slerp ( Vector3 to, float weight ) const

Vector3

slide ( Vector3 n ) const

Vector3

snapped ( Vector3 step ) const

Operators

bool

operator != ( Vector3 right )

Vector3

operator * ( Basis right )

Vector3

operator * ( Quaternion right )

Vector3

operator * ( Transform3D right )

Vector3

operator * ( Vector3 right )

Vector3

operator * ( float right )

Vector3

operator * ( int right )

Vector3

operator + ( Vector3 right )

Vector3

operator - ( Vector3 right )

Vector3

operator / ( Vector3 right )

Vector3

operator / ( float right )

Vector3

operator / ( int right )

bool

operator ( Vector3 right )

bool

operator ( Vector3 right )

bool

operator == ( Vector3 right )

bool

operator > ( Vector3 right )

bool

operator >= ( Vector3 right )

float

operator [] ( int index )

Vector3

operator unary+ ( )

Vector3

operator unary- ( )

Constants

  • AXIS_X = 0 --- Enumerated value for the X axis. Returned by max_axis_index and min_axis_index.

  • AXIS_Y = 1 --- Enumerated value for the Y axis. Returned by max_axis_index and min_axis_index.

  • AXIS_Z = 2 --- Enumerated value for the Z axis. Returned by max_axis_index and min_axis_index.

  • ZERO = Vector3(0, 0, 0) --- Zero vector, a vector with all components set to 0.

  • ONE = Vector3(1, 1, 1) --- One vector, a vector with all components set to 1.

  • INF = Vector3(inf, inf, inf) --- Infinity vector, a vector with all components set to @GDScript.INF.

  • LEFT = Vector3(-1, 0, 0) --- Left unit vector. Represents the local direction of left, and the global direction of west.

  • RIGHT = Vector3(1, 0, 0) --- Right unit vector. Represents the local direction of right, and the global direction of east.

  • UP = Vector3(0, 1, 0) --- Up unit vector.

  • DOWN = Vector3(0, -1, 0) --- Down unit vector.

  • FORWARD = Vector3(0, 0, -1) --- Forward unit vector. Represents the local direction of forward, and the global direction of north.

  • BACK = Vector3(0, 0, 1) --- Back unit vector. Represents the local direction of back, and the global direction of south.

Property Descriptions

Default

0.0

The vector's X component. Also accessible by using the index position [0].


Default

0.0

The vector's Y component. Also accessible by using the index position [1].


Default

0.0

The vector's Z component. Also accessible by using the index position [2].

Constructor Descriptions

Constructs a default-initialized Vector3 with all components set to 0.


Constructs a Vector3 as a copy of the given Vector3.


Constructs a new Vector3 from Vector3i.


Returns a Vector3 with the given components.

Method Descriptions

Returns a new vector with all components in absolute values (i.e. positive).


Returns the unsigned minimum angle to the given vector, in radians.


Returns the vector "bounced off" from a plane defined by the given normal.


Returns a new vector with all components rounded up (towards positive infinity).


Returns a new vector with all components clamped between the components of min and max, by running @GlobalScope.clamp on each component.


Returns the cross product of this vector and with.


Performs a cubic interpolation between this vector and b using pre_a and post_b as handles, and returns the result at position weight. weight is on the range of 0.0 to 1.0, representing the amount of interpolation.


Returns the normalized vector pointing from this vector to to. This is equivalent to using (b - a).normalized().


Returns the squared distance between this vector and to.

This method runs faster than distance_to, so prefer it if you need to compare vectors or need the squared distance for some formula.


Returns the distance between this vector and to.


Returns the dot product of this vector and with. This can be used to compare the angle between two vectors. For example, this can be used to determine whether an enemy is facing the player.

The dot product will be 0 for a straight angle (90 degrees), greater than 0 for angles narrower than 90 degrees and lower than 0 for angles wider than 90 degrees.

When using unit (normalized) vectors, the result will always be between -1.0 (180 degree angle) when the vectors are facing opposite directions, and 1.0 (0 degree angle) when the vectors are aligned.

Note: a.dot(b) is equivalent to b.dot(a).


Returns a new vector with all components rounded down (towards negative infinity).


Returns the inverse of the vector. This is the same as Vector3(1.0 / v.x, 1.0 / v.y, 1.0 / v.z).


Returns true if this vector and v are approximately equal, by running @GlobalScope.is_equal_approx on each component.


  • bool is_normalized ( ) const

Returns true if the vector is normalized, false otherwise.


Returns the length (magnitude) of this vector.


  • float length_squared ( ) const

Returns the squared length (squared magnitude) of this vector.

This method runs faster than length, so prefer it if you need to compare vectors or need the squared distance for some formula.


Returns the result of the linear interpolation between this vector and to by amount weight. weight is on the range of 0.0 to 1.0, representing the amount of interpolation.


Returns the vector with a maximum length by limiting its length to length.


  • int max_axis_index ( ) const

Returns the axis of the vector's highest value. See AXIS_* constants. If all components are equal, this method returns AXIS_X.


  • int min_axis_index ( ) const

Returns the axis of the vector's lowest value. See AXIS_* constants. If all components are equal, this method returns AXIS_Z.


Returns a new vector moved toward to by the fixed delta amount. Will not go past the final value.


Returns the vector scaled to unit length. Equivalent to v / v.length().



  • Vector2 octahedron_encode ( ) const


Returns the outer product with with.


Returns a vector composed of the @GlobalScope.fposmod of this vector's components and mod.


Returns a vector composed of the @GlobalScope.fposmod of this vector's components and modv's components.


Returns this vector projected onto the vector b.


Returns this vector reflected from a plane defined by the given normal.


Rotates this vector around a given axis by angle (in radians). The axis must be a normalized vector.


Returns a new vector with all components rounded to the nearest integer, with halfway cases rounded away from zero.


Returns a new vector with each component set to one or negative one, depending on the signs of the components, or zero if the component is zero, by calling @GlobalScope.sign on each component.


Returns the signed angle to the given vector, in radians. The sign of the angle is positive in a counter-clockwise direction and negative in a clockwise direction when viewed from the side specified by the axis.


Returns the result of spherical linear interpolation between this vector and to, by amount weight. weight is on the range of 0.0 to 1.0, representing the amount of interpolation.

This method also handles interpolating the lengths if the input vectors have different lengths. For the special case of one or both input vectors having zero length, this method behaves like lerp.


Returns this vector slid along a plane defined by the given normal.


Returns this vector with each component snapped to the nearest multiple of step. This can also be used to round to an arbitrary number of decimals.

Operator Descriptions

Returns true if the vectors are not equal.

Note: Due to floating-point precision errors, consider using is_equal_approx instead, which is more reliable.


Inversely transforms (multiplies) the Vector3 by the given Basis matrix.


Inversely transforms (multiplies) the Vector3 by the given Quaternion.


Inversely transforms (multiplies) the Vector3 by the given Transform3D transformation matrix.


Multiplies each component of the Vector3 by the components of the given Vector3.

print(Vector3(10, 20, 30) * Vector3(3, 4, 5)) # Prints "(30, 80, 150)"

Multiplies each component of the Vector3 by the given float.


Multiplies each component of the Vector3 by the given int.


Adds each component of the Vector3 by the components of the given Vector3.

print(Vector3(10, 20, 30) + Vector3(3, 4, 5)) # Prints "(13, 24, 35)"

Subtracts each component of the Vector3 by the components of the given Vector3.

print(Vector3(10, 20, 30) - Vector3(3, 4, 5)) # Prints "(7, 16, 25)"

Divides each component of the Vector3 by the components of the given Vector3.

print(Vector3(10, 20, 30) / Vector3(2, 5, 3)) # Prints "(5, 4, 10)"

Divides each component of the Vector3 by the given float.


Divides each component of the Vector3 by the given int.


Compares two Vector3 vectors by first checking if the X value of the left vector is less than the X value of the right vector. If the X values are exactly equal, then it repeats this check with the Y values of the two vectors, and then with the Z values. This operator is useful for sorting vectors.


Compares two Vector3 vectors by first checking if the X value of the left vector is less than or equal to the X value of the right vector. If the X values are exactly equal, then it repeats this check with the Y values of the two vectors, and then with the Z values. This operator is useful for sorting vectors.


Returns true if the vectors are exactly equal.

Note: Due to floating-point precision errors, consider using is_equal_approx instead, which is more reliable.


Compares two Vector3 vectors by first checking if the X value of the left vector is greater than the X value of the right vector. If the X values are exactly equal, then it repeats this check with the Y values of the two vectors, and then with the Z values. This operator is useful for sorting vectors.


Compares two Vector3 vectors by first checking if the X value of the left vector is greater than or equal to the X value of the right vector. If the X values are exactly equal, then it repeats this check with the Y values of the two vectors, and then with the Z values. This operator is useful for sorting vectors.


Access vector components using their index. v[0] is equivalent to v.x, v[1] is equivalent to v.y, and v[2] is equivalent to v.z.


Returns the same value as if the + was not there. Unary + does nothing, but sometimes it can make your code more readable.


Returns the negative value of the Vector3. This is the same as writing Vector3(-v.x, -v.y, -v.z). This operation flips the direction of the vector while keeping the same magnitude. With floats, the number zero can be either positive or negative.