Utilizzo dei segnali¶
In this lesson, we will look at signals. They are messages that nodes emit when something specific happens to them, like a button being pressed. Other nodes can connect to that signal and call a function when the event occurs.
It is a delegation mechanism built into Godot that allows one game object to react to a change in another without them referencing one another. Using signals limits coupling and keeps your code flexible.
For example, you might have a life bar on the screen that represents the player’s health. When the player takes damage or uses a healing potion, you want the bar to reflect the change. To do so, in Godot, you would use signals.
As mentioned in the introduction, signals are Godot's version of the observer pattern. You can learn more about it here: https://gameprogrammingpatterns.com/observer.html
We will now use a signal to make our Godot icon from the previous lesson (Listening to player input) move and stop by pressing a button.
Impostazione della scena¶
To add a button to our game, we will create a new "main" scene which will
include both a button and the
Sprite.tscn scene that we scripted in previous
Create a new scene by going to the menu Scene -> New Scene.
In the Scene dock, click the 2D Scene button. This will add a Node2D as our root.
In the FileSystem dock, click and drag the
Sprite.tscn file you saved
previously onto the Node2D to instantiate it.
We want to add another node as a sibling of the Sprite. To do so, right-click on Node2D and select Add Child Node.
Search for the Button node type and add it.
The node is small by default. Click and drag on the bottom-right handle of the Button in the viewport to resize it.
If you don't see the handles, ensure the select tool is active in the toolbar.
Click and drag on the button itself to move it closer to the sprite.
You can also write a label on the Button by editing its Text property in the Inspector.
Your scene tree and viewport should look like this.
Save your newly created scene. You can then run it with F6.
Connecting a signal in the editor¶
Here, we want to connect the Button's "pressed" signal to our Sprite, and we want to call a new function that will toggle its motion on and off. We need to have a script attached to the Sprite node, which we do from the previous lesson.
You can connect signals in the Node dock. Select the Button node and, on the right side of the editor, click on the tab named "Node" next to the Inspector.
The dock displays a list of signals available on the selected node.
Double-click the "pressed" signal to open the node connection window.
There, you can connect the signal to the Sprite node. The node needs a receiver method, a function that Godot will call when the Button emits the signal. The editor generates one for you. By convention, we name these callback methods "_on_NodeName_signal_name". Here, it'll be "_on_Button_pressed".
When connecting signals via the editor's Node dock, you can use two modes. The simple one only allows you to connect to nodes that have a script attached to them and creates a new callback function on them.
The advanced view lets you connect to any node and any built-in function, add arguments to the callback, and set options. You can toggle the mode in the window's bottom-right by clicking the radio button.
Click the connect button to complete the signal connection and jump to the Script workspace. You should see the new method with a connection icon in the left margin.
If you click the icon, a window pops up and displays information about the connection. This feature is only available when connecting nodes in the editor.
Let's replace the line with the
pass keyword with code that'll toggle the
Our Sprite moves thanks to code in the
_process() function. Godot provides a
method to toggle processing on and off: Node.set_process(). Another method of the Node class,
true if idle processing is active. We can use
not keyword to invert the value.
func _on_Button_pressed(): set_process(not is_processing())
This function will toggle processing and, in turn, the icon's motion on and off upon pressing the button.
Before trying the game, we need to simplify our
_process() function to move
the node automatically and not wait for user input. Replace it with the
following code, which we saw two lessons ago:
func _process(delta): rotation += angular_speed * delta var velocity = Vector2.UP.rotated(rotation) * speed position += velocity * delta
Sprite.gd code should look like the following.
extends Sprite var speed = 400 var angular_speed = PI func _process(delta): rotation += angular_speed * delta var velocity = Vector2.UP.rotated(rotation) * speed position += velocity * delta func _on_Button_pressed(): set_process(not is_processing())
Run the scene now and click the button to see the sprite start and stop.
Connecting a signal via code¶
You can connect signals via code instead of using the editor. This is necessary when you create nodes or instantiate scenes inside of a script.
Let's use a different node here. Godot has a Timer node that's useful to implement skill cooldown times, weapon reloading, and more.
Head back to the 2D workspace. You can either click the "2D" text at the top of the window or press Ctrl + F1 (Alt + 1 on macOS).
In the Scene dock, right-click on the Sprite node and add a new child node. Search for Timer and add the corresponding node. Your scene should now look like this.
With the Timer node selected, go to the Inspector and check the Autostart property.
Click the script icon next to Sprite to jump back to the scripting workspace.
We need to do two operations to connect the nodes via code:
Get a reference to the Timer from the Sprite.
Call the Timer's
To connect to a signal via code, you need to call the
method of the node you want to listen to. In this case, we want to
listen to the Timer's "timeout" signal.
We want to connect the signal when the scene is instantiated, and we can do that using the Node._ready() built-in function, which is called automatically by the engine when a node is fully instantiated.
To get a reference to a node relative to the current one, we use the method Node.get_node(). We can store the reference in a variable.
func _ready(): var timer = get_node("Timer")
get_node() looks at the Sprite's children and gets nodes by
their name. For example, if you renamed the Timer node to "BlinkingTimer" in the
editor, you would have to change the call to
We can now connect the Timer to the Sprite in the
func _ready(): var timer = get_node("Timer") timer.connect("timeout", self, "_on_Timer_timeout")
The line reads like so: we connect the Timer's "timeout" signal to the node to
which the script is attached (
self). When the Timer emits "timeout", we want
to call the function "_on_Timer_timeout", that we need to define. Let's add it
at the bottom of our script and use it to toggle our sprite's visibility.
func _on_Timer_timeout(): visible = not visible
visible property is a boolean that controls the visibility of our node.
visible = not visible toggles the value. If
true, it becomes
false, and vice-versa.
That's it for our little moving and blinking Godot icon demo!
Here is the complete
Sprite.gd file for reference.
extends Sprite var speed = 400 var angular_speed = PI func _ready(): var timer = get_node("Timer") timer.connect("timeout", self, "_on_Timer_timeout") func _process(delta): rotation += angular_speed * delta var velocity = Vector2.UP.rotated(rotation) * speed position += velocity * delta func _on_Button_pressed(): set_process(not is_processing()) func _on_Timer_timeout(): visible = not visible
This section is a reference on how to define and use your own signals, and does not build upon the project created in previous lessons.
You can define custom signals in a script. Say, for example, that you want to show a game over screen when the player's health reaches zero. To do so, you could define a signal named "died" or "health_depleted" when their health reaches 0.
extends Node2D signal health_depleted var health = 10
As signals represent events that just occurred, we generally use an action verb in the past tense in their names.
Your signals work the same way as built-in ones: they appear in the Node tab and you can connect to them like any other.
To emit a signal in your scripts, call
func take_damage(amount): health -= amount if health <= 0: emit_signal("health_depleted")
A signal can optionally declare one or more arguments. Specify the argument names between parentheses:
extends Node signal health_changed(old_value, new_value)
I segnali sono argomenti che vengono visualizzati nel riquadro del nodo dell'editor e Godot può utilizzarli per generare funzioni di callback. Tuttavia, è ancora possibile emettere un numero qualsiasi di argomenti quando si emettono segnali, quindi spetta a te fornire i valori corretti.
To emit values along with the signal, add them as extra arguments to the
func take_damage(amount): var old_health = health health -= amount emit_signal("health_changed", old_health, health)
Any node in Godot emits signals when something specific happens to them, like a button being pressed. Other nodes can connect to individual signals and react to selected events.
Signals have many uses. With them, you can react to a node entering or exiting the game world, to a collision, to a character entering or leaving an area, to an element of the interface changing size, and much more.
For example, an Area2D representing a coin emits a
body_entered signal whenever the player's physics body enters its collision
shape, allowing you to know when the player collected it.
In the next section, Il tuo primo gioco 2D, you'll create a complete 2D game and put everything you learned so far into practice.